Monday, January 27, 2020

Design and Build Contract in Project

Design and Build Contract in Project The term ‘procurement route considers all the activities undertaken by the client or clients representative, whether this is a sole decision or a decision made with the help of other parties, such as the various consultants or in some cases even the contractor, towards the goal of developing a construction project that the client is ultimately happy with.   There are various procurement routes, which can be categorized into three main procurement route contracts, a Traditional contract, a Design and Build contract, and a Management contract. A Traditional contract benefits in cost and quality, but at the expense of time.   It is not the fastest of methods, and with this procurement route it is desirable to have all the information at tender stage.   It is basically straightforward, but complications can arise if the client requires that certain sub-contractors are used.   With this procurement route the client requires certain standards to be shown or described, but the client is wholly responsible for achieving the stated quality on site, and controls the design and variations to a large extent.   It has certainty in cost and time before commitment to build, and requires clear accountability and cost monitoring at all stages.   Competitive tenders are possible for all items.   The risk is generally fair and balanced between all the parties.   (CLAMP, Hugh, COX, Stanley LUPTON, Sarah, 2003) A Design and Build contract benefits in cost and time, but at the expense of quality.   It is a relatively fast method. The pre-tender time largely depends on the amount of detail in the clients requirements, but the construction time can be reduced because the design and building phases proceed in parallel.   With this procurement route the client has no direct control over the contractors performance, has little say in the choice of specialist sub-contractors, and has virtually no flexibility once the contract is signed.   It has a guaranteed cost and completion date.   The risk with this procurement route lies almost entirely with the contractor. (CLAMP, Hugh, COX, Stanley LUPTON, Sarah, 2003) A Management contract benefits in time and quality, but at the expense of cost.   An early start on site is possible with this procurement route, long before tenders have been invited for some of the works packages.   It involves a complex management operation requiring sophisticated techniques.   The managing contractor is responsible for quality of work and materials on site and can easily adjust the programme and costs, meaning the client can also easily modify or develop design requirements during construction.   With this procurement route the client is committed to start building on only a cost plan, project drawings and a specification.   The risk lies mainly with the client in this method of procurement. (CLAMP, Hugh, COX, Stanley LUPTON, Sarah, 2003) For the purpose of this project we propose to use a Design and Build contract.   We have made this decision based on the project requiring cost and time to be prioritized, a guaranteed completion date being essential to minimise down time, and the benefit of having the responsibility of risk being taken away from the client. Tender Process Tendering is the name given to the process or procedure that is used to obtain offers leading to a contract between two parties.   The two main types of tender process are single stage tendering and two-stage tendering. Single stage tendering is suitable for small simple projects, where the key issues are speed and cost assurity.   It is considered by clients because of a need for greater cost certainty during the design and construction phases, the need for a well documented, fixed-price contract, the benefit from the discipline of completing the design before a contractor appointment takes place, and the use of commercial pressure to secure cost reductions for projects that might otherwise be unviable.   A single stage tendering process however offers limited scope for a team to develop a shared objective or for a contractor to contribute to design development, and changes introduced by the design team will undermine the certainty achieved with a lump sum tender. A two-stage tendering process is particularly suitable for large or complex projects, where a key factor is the close collaboration between the contractor and client, particularly during the design phase, as the contractor will endeavour to find the best solution for the project in terms of cost programme and design.   A two-stage tendering process is considered by clients because of its second stage being based on more complete information and therefore the contractor having a better understanding of the scope of works, which in turn should help obtain a final account that is closer to the contract sum, the ability to continue the development of the design during the second stage of the tender in conjunction with the main contractor and specialist sub contractors, and because it helps promote a specific focus on issues of buildability and economic construction during the later stages of design.   However the cost of second stage tenders tend to be higher because of negotiation p remiums and the inclusion of additional risk transfers, and not exceeding the cost and completion date are not binding prior to the finalisation of the contract. In two-stage tendering, like single stage tendering, the first stage is a competitive tender and it is usual to base these on the tenderers track records, preliminaries, overheads, an outline programme and the contractors pricing documents in relation to the preliminary design information.   Unlike a single stage tender, the first stage ends not with a contract being awarded but with the selection of a contractor for the second phase, in which the level of pricing provided in the first stage of the tender is used to open negotiations to produce a firmer price based on the drawings, bills of quantities and any other relevant documents that reflect the completed design. For the purposes of this project we propose to use a single stage tendering process.   We have made this decision based on the need for speed and cost assurity on the project, with the two key issues being time and cost. As early as possible during the design process we will propose a list of suitable contractors obtained from an electronic database containing a list of approved contractors.   The main criteria for selecting contractors for the initial tender list will include adequacy of available resources, adequacy of technical and management structure, financial stability and insurance cover, health and safety record, quality of work and adequacy of quality control, and performance record. We propose to issue preliminary enquiries to each contractor on the initial tender list 4-6 weeks before the tender documents are due to be issued, including a project information schedule and a questionnaire.   This will determine whether each contractor is both suited to the project and willing to submit a tender.   The contractors will be given 10 days from its original dispatch to return the completed questionnaire.    Once a short list of tenderers has been agreed and the tender documents are ready for release, they will be sent to the tenderers along with a Form of Invitation to Tender and a Form of Tender.   The latest time and date for submission of the tender will be included on both the Invitation to Tender and the Form of Tender, and will state that they are to remain open for acceptance for a period of 28 days from the bid submission date. When the tender return forms are received, the ones which are returned by the closing date will be analysed and a summary report will be written and sent to the client, and those which are returned after the closing date will remain unopened and be sent back to the sender.   As project managers we will offer advice upon the choice of appointed contractor, if the client requests so.   When we have received confirmation from the client regarding the chosen contractor we will notify them that they have won the work, and notify the unsuccessful tenderers that they have not. On Site Strategy Prior to work commencing on-site we propose to call a pre-start meeting, where the programme of works will be discussed and a letter of intent will be issued to the client.   When the contractor begins work on site we propose to take a monitoring roll.   On the first day of the work commencing on-site, as contract administrators, we will meet with the contractor and discuss site security, access, welfare facilities, deliveries and storage, and notify them of the time and date that snagging will be carried out. We propose to commence snagging 6 hours before the end of the construction phase, in order to give the contractor time to rectify any issues raised during the snagging process.   The snagging process will assess the quality of the work, the workmanship, and ensure all of the work complies with the clients specification.   We propose, as the contract administrators, to write the snagging list in conjunction with the foreman on site due to time constraints, of which a copy will be left with the foreman on site so that they can rectify any snags prior to the completion of the construction works. We propose to commence de-snagging once the contractor has informed us, as the contract administrators, that the construction work has been completed.   At this point, acting as the contract administrators, we will issue a certificate of practical completion and initialize the defects liability period, as determined in the contract.  Ã‚  Ã‚   References CLAMP, Hugh, COX, Stanley LUPTON, Sarah. (2003). Which Contract? Choosing the Appropriate Building Contract. 4th ed., London, RIBA Enterprises Ltd. Bibliography CHAPPELL, David. (2006). Construction Contracts, Questions Answers. Oxford, Taylor Francis. CHAPPELL, David. (2006). Contractual Correspondence for Architects Project Managers. 4th ed., Oxford, Blackwell Publishing Ltd. LUPTON, Sarah. (ed.) (2001). Architects Handbook Practice Management. 7th ed., London, R.I.B.A. Publications. LUPTON, Sarah. (ed.) (2000). Architects Job Book. 7th ed., London, R.I.B.A. Publications. ROY, Morledge, SMITH, Adrian KASHIWAGI, Dean T. (2006). Building Procurement. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing Ltd. MURDOCH, John HUGHES, Will. (2008). Construction Contracts, Law and Management. 4th ed., Oxon, Taylor Francis.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

life and career :: essays research papers

Life and Career The known facts of Chaucer's life are fragmentary and are based almost entirely on official records. He was born in London between 1340 and 1344, the son of John Chaucer, a vintner. In 1357 he was a page in the household of Prince Lionel, later duke of Clarence, whom he served for many years. In 1359–60 he was with the army of Edward III in France, where he was captured by the French but ransomed. By 1366 he had married Philippa Roet, who was probably the sister of John of Gaunt's third wife; she was a lady-in-waiting to Edward III's queen. During the years 1370 to 1378, Chaucer was frequently employed on diplomatic missions to the Continent, visiting Italy in 1372–73 and in 1378. From 1374 on he held a number of official positions, among them comptroller of customs on furs, skins, and hides for the port of London (1374–86) and clerk of the king's works (1389–91). The official date of Chaucer's death is Oct. 25, 1400. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. Geoffrey Chaucer was born in London, the son of a successful wine merchant. After probably spending many of his childhood days in London's Vintry, his father did not send him to apprenticeship school, but rather to the aristocratic house of the countess of Ulster. There he trained as a page and learned the mannerisms and skills of the ruling class. He continued to be engaged in English politics, serving people such as King Edward III and the county of Kent. He was involved in many diplomatic assignments to Spain, France and Italy. Works by Dante, Boccaccio, and Petrarch affected much of Chaucer's writings. In addition to these famous writers, Chaucer was influenced by other French, Italian, and Latin writers as well as philosophy, comedy, religion, astrology and other sciences. Chaucer used a variety of genres, styles, tones, and subject matters in this poems and his prose. He addressed

Saturday, January 11, 2020

A Necessary Evil Essay

After listening to people in various careers, I’ve found that the most abused and underrated professions are those connected with public service. People who work in law enforcement, fire prevention, medicine and education are underpaid, overworked, and taken for granted. Without the benefit of these professionals we would be less likely to live our lives with relative safety, the benefit of education and the good health most of us possess. However, when it comes to salaries, working conditions and public support for the people in these fields, very little is given without long, com- plicated labor disputes. Many people would deny even the chance for them to take a stand for the rights they deserve for fear their walkout would endanger the public welfare. I agree that when people in these professions call for a strike hospitals go haywire, criminals are freer to roam and kids miss important weeks of class work. But striking may be the only way for these people to draw attention to their low wages, poor working conditions and lack of public support; and they should have the right to do so. Low wages are obviously the priority issue discussed when contracts are up for renewal and one of the basic reasons for calling a strike. Even though most union officials often seem to go overboard in their demands, it may be a necessary tactic used to wake up the administrators who never want to give even the basic cost-of-living raise. While teachers and nurses are called â€Å"professionals† and spend years of time and money to train for these positions, when it comes to dollars and cents, their paychecks never come close to what other professionals receive. Police and firemen leave their houses every day unsure they’ll make it home uninjured – if they make it back at all – but their salaries hardly reflect the risk they take to chase criminals or fight fires. Money, however, is only one of the major issues public workers take with them to the bargaining table. Working conditions, especially for medical support personnel and educators, are always a reason for voting to strike when demands are not met during contract discussions For example, many teachers spend a great deal of time in old school buildings (full of flaking asbestos) with inefficient heating systems creating a rather frigid atmosphere for learning. Children sit in classrooms dressed in coats, hats and gloves reading textbooks dating back to the 1960’s. From their vantage point, teachers notice the peeling paint, broken chairs and children with problems they can’t begin to tackle. Obviously, without the proper tools with which to teach in an atmosphere of decay or the proper placement for children needing individual attention, the job of teaching becomes frustrating and even futile, and creates a growing apathy towards the children and the profession in general. Another example is the nurse or nursing assistant who has just completed a twelve hour shift and has been told she must stay through the next because so and so called in sick. According to a close friend who is an L.P.N., this kind of request is nothing unusual and refusal to work the extra time can cause stomach ulcers quicker than if she stays and works without protest. The guy who scrubs the hospital corridors works under better conditions; and while sanitation is important in a hospital, he’ll never have to read bottles of medication or cardiac monitors through half-shut eyes. Lack of public support is another factor forcing these professionals to strike. So taken for granted are our public service workers that many of them receive far more complaints than compliments for their daily work. A fire fighter called in the middle of the night with only moments notice is on his way to save a burning building. Reaching his destination, he grabs an ax and breaks a window to gain entrance to the property and put out the fire. Two days later the fire company receives a nasty letter complaining about the broken window. Lack of support for the police officer may even be felt from within the law enforcement system. The policeman who arrests a person for robbery or rape is constantly faced with the court’s decision to let the offender out on bail or completely free to repeat the crime for which he was originally arrested. Again, frustration and apathy are sure to give way to poor self-esteem and a growing desperation caused by lack of caring and support by the public. People who teach, work to make our environment safe and those who help to keep us healthy are our support personnel. Although they are trained professionals working to make our lives richer, we take them for granted and leave them little choice but to let us know what life would be like if they were not here at all.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Essay on Hip-hop, Reggae, and Politics - 5105 Words

Hip-hop, Reggae, and Politics Introduction Music is an art form and source of power. Many forms of music reflect culture and society, as well as, containing political content and social message. Music as social change has been highlighted throughout the 20th century. In the 1960s the United States saw political and socially oriented folk music discussing the Vietnam War and other social issues. In Jamaica during the 1970s and 1980s reggae developed out of the Ghetto’s of Trench town and expressed the social unrest of the poor and the need to over-through the oppressors. The 1980’s brought the newest development in social and political music, the emergence of hip-hop and rap. This urban musical art form that was developed in New†¦show more content†¦This paper is an analysis of the political and social aspects of hip-hop and reggae, as well as, addressing the commonalities of the music itself as they have developed and changed over time. This analysis produces the holistic view reflecting the interc onnectedness of these two genres of music. Reggae’s Influence on hip-hop Reggae music had a direct impact on the development of hip-hop music. Both styles of music emerged from the dancehall, with lyrics containing social and political message. â€Å"Reggae started as ‘sufferah’s’ music in poor Jamaican villages. Inside gritty dancehalls, selectors spun scratchy sides, called ‘specials,’ and MC’s boasted, talked nonsense and criticized political, cultural and economic oppression† (Havlock). Reggae emerged out of the island culture of Jamaica and the â€Å"poor man’s party,† while hip-hop music emerged in New York City, specifically the Bronx, in the early 1970s. DJ Kool Herc is credited as one, if not the originator, of hip-hop. Kool Herc brought his Caribbean style when emigrated from Jamaica in 1967. 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The roots of rap music are closely linked to reggae music, jazz, blues, and soul which gives the genre a lot of culture (â€Å"The Social Significance Of Rap†). Rap means a lot more than just rapping about drugs, sex, and violence. Rap can be a voice of the voiceless. Politicians see rap as a way for teens