Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Effective Leadership Essay

Being an effective leader means learning who you are and what you stand for, and having the courage to act on your values. Moral leadership is quite similar to the concept of servant leadership in that the emphasis and the reward are based in doing for others. A leader serves using an ethical foundation which is then adapted and acted on by followers within the organization. Moral leadership describes how leaders make decisions according to beliefs about right and wrong. A system of morals, or beliefs, is also very personal to leaders. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., displayed courage and moral leadership; Martin Luther King Jr. was born in Atlanta, Georgia, the eldest son of Martin Luther King Sr., a Baptist minister and Alberta Williams King. King attended local segregated public school. He entered Morehouse College at the age of 15 and graduated with a bachelor’s degree in sociology in 1948. After graduating with honors from Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania in 1951, he went to Boston University where he earned a doctoral degree in systematic theology in 1955. Throughout his education, King was exposed to influences that related Christian theology to the struggles of oppressed people. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., operated on moral leadership, distinguishing right from wrong and doing right, seeking the just, the honest, the good, and the right conduct in achieving goals and fulfilling purpose. In May of 1963, Martin Luther King Jr., and his Southern Christian Leadership Conference staff escalated anti-segregation marches in Birmingham by encouraging teenagers and school children to join. Hundreds of singing children filled the streets of downtown Birmingham, angering Sheriff Bull Connor, who sent police officers with attack dogs and firefighters with high-pressure water hoses against the marchers. Scenes of young protesters being attacked by dogs and pinned against buildings by torrents of water from fire hoses were shown in newspapers and television around the world. During the demonstration, King was arrested and sent to jail. He wrote a letter from his jail cell to local clergymen who had criticized him for creating disorder in the city. His â€Å"Letter from Birmingham City Jail† which argued that individuals had the moral right and responsibility to disobey unjust laws, was widely read at the time and added to King’s standing as a moral leader. The demonstration forced white leaders to negotiate and end some form of segregation in Birmingham. Even more important, the protest encouraged many Americans to support national legislation against segregation. Martin Luther King Jr. and other black leaders organized the 1963 March on Washington, a massive protest in Washington, D.C, for jobs and civil rights. On August 28, 1963, King delivered the keynote address to an audience of more than 200,000 civil rights supporters. His â€Å"I Have a Dream† speech expressed the hopes of the Civil Rights Movement in oratory as moving as any in American history: â€Å" I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: â€Å" We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal. â€Å" I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character†. The speech and the march built on the Birmingham demonstration to create the political momentum that resulted in the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited segregation in public accommodations, as well as discrimination in education and employment. As a result of King’s effectiveness as a leader of the American Civil rights Movement and his highly visible moral and courage stance he was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize for peace.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Beverly Cleary Author Study Essay

Hi, my name is Beverly Cleary. I am an author of over thirty books for children and adults. I have written many award winning books. I worked as a librarian when I was younger. That’s where I got the idea to write about ordinary kids. I was born in McMinnville Oregon on April 12, 1916. My dad was in the war. When I was a child I was always around books. Soon me and my family moved to Portland. I attended grammar and high school there. I found myself in the low reading circle. When in third grade I was told by the public librarian â€Å"You should write a book.† I kept that in mind. When I was 34 I wrote my first book, Henry Huggins. The way I get the ideas for the books is from my own experiences like my childhood or other kids’ childhood. Maybe I would see an article in the newspaper or a magazine. Sometimes it would just seem to come out of thin air. Once two boys who didn’t know each other asked me to write a book about a child of divorce. That’s how I got Dear Mr. Henshaw, my Newberry winner. One street that most of my characters live on is Klickitat Street which is a real street in Portland. I have won many awards for my books. For example, Dear Mr. Henshaw won the Newberry Medal in 1984. Ramona and Her Father was made a Newberry Honor Book in 1978. Ramona Quimby, Age 8 was made a Newberry Honor Book in 1982. The Newberry award is one of the most prestigious awards given to authors for their contributions to literature for children. In 1984 the U.S. made me a nominee for the Hans Christian Andersen award. Two of my books are Henry Huggins and Ribsy. Some ways they are alike are that they have the same characters – Henry Huggins, Ribsy, Ramona, and Beezes. They both have a both have problems concerning animals and they take place on the same street. Some ways they are different are that they have different problems. In the book Henry Huggins, Henry has lots of small problems with his pets, which are not life and death situations. In the book Ribsy, Ribsy the dog has one big problem. He gets lost and he needs to figure out how to get back to his owner, Henry Huggins. This is a big problem for a dog because he doesn’t want to get hit by a car or get killed or hurt by other animals. My books are about ordinary kids and the things that happen to them. There’s usually a problem or two and the characters find interesting ways to solve them. I like to write about ordinary kids because it’s something kids can relate to and enjoy reading without thinking it’s a hassle. Kids tell me they like my stories. I hope you do too.

Google: Research Google’s Attempt to Buy Into Wireless Via the 700 Mhz Spectrum Auction.

Verdell ChesterTM-583 Case 4 – Google: Research Google’s attempt to buy into wireless via the 700 MHz Spectrum Auction. 1. Why  did Google making this move? Google’s Motivation to bid into the wireless marketplace through the use of the 700MHz Spectrum Auction was the opportunity to develop possibly a 50 state network â€Å"The FCC is auctioning 1,099 wireless licenses in the 700 MHz band, but the most attractive spectrum for many bidders is the â€Å"C-block† of 12 regional licenses that may be combined to create a 50-state network. (Reiter, 2008) This new product development would allow Google to become a cellular network operator. This market includes firms such as AT;amp;T and Verizon, Google would not only compete with these firms but also would have had the opportunity to network with other entities to develop some innovative new products. What do they hope to accomplish? The prospect of entering into the wireless market offers Google many potenti al growth and development practices as well as competencies. There are also many risks associated with this strategy, including the cost of building and maintaining a billion dollar network.One particular goal that may have been in mind with this decision is the growth of Google’s vast wireless software portfolio that includes Gmail, Maps, Docs, Calendar Sync and various other applications that can be downloaded to many phones. There may have been other reasons Google chose to take interest into the wireless market such as the ownership of Youtube and its developments in a new website and java beta application that allows people to view tens of millions of videos via cell phone. . How does Google’s support for Open Access fit into Google’s plans? Google supporting Open Access really makes this a popular decision. Many people are rooting for Google to bid on the 700MHz spectrum for reasons that it will allow for competitive pricing of many cellular internet featu res. Furthermore research shows that Google supports open access initiatives like a concept called network neutrality, this is a principle proposed for user access networks participating in the Internet.It advocates that no restrictions can be imposed by internet service providers and governments on content, sites, platforms, the kinds of equipment that may be attached, and the modes of communication. Google still supports this idea but has made moves in this direction like stated in their public policy blog â€Å"FACT: Google has been the leading corporate voice on the issue of network neutrality over the past five years. No other company is working as tirelessly for an open Internet. But given political realities, this particular issue has been intractable in Washington for several years now.At this time there are no enforceable protections – at the Federal Communications Commission or anywhere else – against even the worst forms of carrier discrimination against In ternet traffic. † (Whitt ;amp; Counsel, 2010) This bid would provide google the ability to offer the most openly accessible network. 3. It looks like Google wants to get into wireless; yet, wireless is not one of Google’s core competencies. What should Google do about this? Google is not known for developing a large wireless network, but they are known for its advertising capabilities.This opportunity can present Google the chance to gain this ability and further strengthen its advertising ability. Google should invest in this opportunity although it may currently not fall into its current competencies; Google has capabilities that can allow them to develop newer competencies through their current ones. By taking their ability to advertise and the ability to deliver new internet products they can develop a superior network that enhances their ability to advertise and present customers with vast channels of information.Another option is looking toward some of Google†™s partnerships and ownerships and collecting resources from their wide variety of talent to develop a team tasked with developing the new competencies needed to make the new business venture successful. Similar to Google spearheading the Open Handset Alliance’s Android mobile platform, this new venture will need to break boundaries and establish Google as a premiere wireless network. â€Å"This situation has crippled consumers' ability to use the Internet on their mobile devices, compared to how they use it on their PCs.Google executives say their aim is to bring the PC-style of Internet openness to the mobile world so that users have more choice in mobile services and applications, as well as price. † (Mills, 2007) Google has the opportunity to develop the competencies for emerging as a successful wireless network yet they have to take the risk of investing into this opportunity. Google has the customer support and the finances to go for it, and it doesn’t l ook like a bad choice.Bibliography:Mills, E. (2007, 11 30). Cnet news. Retrieved 12 5, 2010, from Google versus the Telcoms: http://news. cnet. com/Google-versus-the-telecoms/2100-1039_3-6220909. html Reiter, A. (2008, 2 5).Internet Evolution. Retrieved 12 5, 2010, from Internet Evolution: http://www. internetevolution. com/author. asp? section_id=526;amp;doc_id=144810 Whitt, R. , ;amp; Counsel, W. T. (2010, 8 12).Google Public Policy Blog. Retrieved 12 5, 2010, from Google Public Policy Blog: http://googlepublicpolicy. blogspot. com/search/label/Net%20Neutrality

Monday, July 29, 2019

Admission Essay for Business School Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Admission for Business School - Essay Example I have chosen this Business School because it is a unique institution which provides students with practical skills so important in modern business. I find that Bentley has a unique leadership focus which allows to them to prepare really good managers (and all successful businesses have them) capable of having, or recognizing, good ideas and using them to make things happen in a new way: of translating ideas into useful, practicable and commercial products, services or systems. Modern business cannot exist without innovation and Bentley integrates new approaches of business into its curriculum. At Bentley, innovation draws together new ideas and their implementation, whereas creativity is the having of new ideas which, in an organization, are generated or spotted by individuals or teams. I am opining to enter Bentley because it encourages creativity in people (including oneself) by exploring some of the qualities and characteristics of creative thinkers and the activities/steps that can be undertaken to improve the processes involved. In innovation it must be remembered that creative thinking makes it possible and teamwork makes it happen. I am eager to improve my leadership skills and become an expert in this field. I see training and education as the main methods to improve myself and increase productivity. A number of those whose fundamental interests are in leadership effectiveness and training feel that progress would be facilitated by greater attention to underlying specific behavioral processes. I suppose that modern organizations need to go beyond traditional task and socio-emotional categories of behavior; this should be in the direction of identifying the basic building blocks of interactions. I am a hard-working student who spends much time working on my personal development and self-improvements. For a long period of time, I like basketball and travel: baseball

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Macroeconomics in unemployment Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Macroeconomics in unemployment - Research Paper Example This paper is the best example of the thorough examination of such important macroeconomic factor as unemployment. People are considered to be unemployed when they are not actively doing productive work Unemployment rates are volatile and the other macroeconomic indicators play significant roles. Unemployment is a macroeconomic factor that is highly determined by other macroeconomic factors and its effects are widely felt across an economy. Several types of unemployment exist but four are majorly explored. The first one is seasonal unemployment that occurs due to differing needs of the hiring industries. Firms will hire employees during peak seasons when more production is required and retrench some of their employees during low seasons. The second type of unemployment is frictional employment and arises due to shifting of jobs by workers. It is also referred to as search unemployment because it normally takes time for an individual to secure a job after quitting one or after finishing their studies. Structural unemployment is another type and is caused by changes in technology and the structure of the economy. The fourth unemployment type is referred to as cyclical unemployment and results from changes in business environments It is important for an economy to maintain low rates of unemployment. The most important reason for this is economic consequences of unemployment such as the measure of the lost goods and services that the unemployed population could be contributing to the economy had they been employed. The scope of unemployment identifies wide initiatives such as governments’ monetary and fiscal policies to influence economic activities and other macroeconomic indicators towards sustainable employments rates. ... Low interest rates encourage borrowings for investments and private use. This further increases consumption and facilitates investment as firms are encouraged explore investment opportunities. This â€Å"redirect output towards its full –employment potential† (Stoup, Sobel, & Macpherson, 2009, p. 227). High interest rates from factors such as inflation or increased demand for financial services make investment expensive. The overall impact of the increased interest rates is therefore a contracted economy with lost employment opportunities towards higher unemployment rates (Stoup, Sobel, & Macpherson, 2009). There also exists a significant association between unemployment and an economy’s gross domestic product. The gross domestic product refers to the measure of all goods and services produced by an economy within a period, normally a year. Changes in the GDP will therefore reflect conditions of the labour market because the labour force generates realized produc tions. A fall in gross domestic product indicates a rise in the rate of unemployment, whether real or virtual. This occurs because if businesses resort to producing fewer goods and services, then some of the workers lose their jobs hence rise in unemployment. An increase in gross domestic product however associated with increased activity levels that further indicate lower unemployment rates (Mankiw, 2012). Unemployment also relates to consumer price index, a measure of the change in price of goods and services that are bought by individual consumers. The index also keeps track of changes in the cost of living. Low unemployment rates increase average economic potentials and this changes the consumer price

Saturday, July 27, 2019

IDiscusson board reply645 Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

IDiscusson board reply645 - Coursework Example The Bible is full of teachings on rewards that should be fair and just (Deuteronomy 25:4). In most of Jesus’ teachings, one will be rewarded for what they have done. In business, this sets a yardstick for just and consistent compensations. The same principles are applicable to person-focused pay systems. Skills are acknowledged in the Bible the same way they are acknowledged in the business world as basis of competency-based pay. In 2 Chronicles 2:3, Huram-Abi is preferentially sent because he is â€Å"a man of great skill.† NIV (â€Å",† n.d.). In the same way, Ecclesiastes 10:10 states that â€Å"If the ax is dull and its edge unsharpened, more strength is needed, but skill will bring success.† NIV. Those in leadership, according to the Word of God, should lead in all diligence and Colossians 3:23 admonish everyone that â€Å"whatsoever you do, do it heartily, as to the Lord, and not unto men.† (AKJV). As such, everything one does should be to perfection and justly. The Bible is sensitive to equitable pay to everyone (PETER, n.d.), including the top executive by giving an analogy of an ox that ploughs in Deuteronomy 25:4 that says â€Å"Do not muzzle an ox while it is treading out

Friday, July 26, 2019

A Personal Analysis of Two images from UCL collections (Cultural and Essay

A Personal Analysis of Two images from UCL collections (Cultural and Historical Geography) - Essay Example This phenomenon is not a feature of photography, because a photo reflects exactly what a camera captures. For this reason photographs may even serve as evidence of certain historical events – they reflect the reality of the moment. On this matter James Curtis outlines that â€Å"Public and scholarly faith in the realism of the photographic image is grounded in a belief that a photograph is a mechanical reproduction of reality† (Curtis 2003, pp.1-2). Therefore, it is possible to assume that in most cases a photograph can give rather precise information about the people, places and events of a particular moment in time. For this reason it is interesting to investigate the social, cultural and historical context of photographs from different time periods to find out how these geographical aspects change through time, and how they are reflected by photography. Just like the ‘Group photograph of visit to Russia’, ‘Research into Heredity’ can be called a documentary photograph because it also tells a story of what was taking place around the moment of taking a picture. In particular, ‘Research into Heredity’ is a photo of a boating party. What is known is that the party took place sometime between 1880 and 1889, and the photograph of its participants was used by Sir Francis Galton as a part of his research into heredity and genetics. Most likely Sir Galton kept this photograph for scientific purposes. It is seen that some faces were cut out of the photo. So, it might be assumed that those cut out faces were then used by the photographer as an aid in his research of heredity. It can be seen that both, men and women, as well as some children, were present at the party. Most men are accompanied by a woman, so it is possible that men came to the party together with their families. Considering that many people in the photograph are relatives, the assumption

Thursday, July 25, 2019

What Makes for a Good Cut Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

What Makes for a Good Cut - Essay Example The example shown on the film pertains to the film â€Å"Jaws† where editing made the shark scenes more realistic and believable, and it elicited fear from the audience because the scenes were cut just in the right places where the fake shark wouldn’t be seen as a fake one but a real one. Another thing the editor considers is the shot which is being used. A good editor knows when a long shot or a close-up would be appropriate, or whether the focus on one actor or the other would be better enhanced. Melodramas made ample use of the close-ups during the early years of film, and this practice has been adapted to focus on the element of emotions up to now. There is also the aspect of the fluid movement. The editor is concerned with the fluidity of movement from one scene to the next. In old films as well as in recent ones, there are scenes where a long shot is made which cuts to a next frame which utilizes a much closer shot. The fluid movement from one frame to the next is the handiwork of the editor and the almost invisible cut in between determines how skillfully the editor performs his craft. A good editor also knows how to maximize the use of sounds and images to get the film’s message across. During early times, films were used for purposes of propaganda and in influencing people. Whether it is suspense, action, comedy, drama, an erotic film or a horror flick, the editor knows the exact sound and image to show the audience so that they are moved to respond in a certain way.  

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Sustainable Tourism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Sustainable Tourism - Essay Example Now, the question arises what is the tourism prospective of Olympic Games. It is known that a sport is an essential tourist phenomenon that offers people with thrilling and motivating sightseer experiences. Olympic is a world’s leading sporting occasion that provides tourists with diverse lively, reflexive and vividly experienced activities. Thus, Olympics provide an extensive range of greatly considerable tourism benefits (Weed, 2007). In early 1990s, tourism scholars and professionals began to contemplate the associations of sustainable development for their own enterprise. Since the Earth Summit, the idea of sustainable development has sought attention from both tourism philosophers and professionals. Its basic hypothesis has acquired worldwide approval as an adorable outcome of tourism development. This has been mirrored in the conception of sustainable tourism advancement plans, policy declarations and guidelines. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) supported the sustainable advancement to tourism, and commenced to apply sustainable advancement ethics in all of its tourism outlining and development. The United Nations and its organizations have also consigned the significance of tourism and sustainable development on several occasions. The General Assembly observed the significance of tourism and appealed for the development of a business plan particularly for tourism development in the year 1997 (Berno and B ricker, 2001). This study aims to discuss the degree of sustainability of the Beijing Olympic Games 2008. This study also examines the actions taken by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and Chinese Government and their subsequent impacts. This research tries to establish how far Beijing have been able to achieve sustainability in tourism. Several stakeholders had a curiosity in contributing to the development and arrangement of the Beijing

Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 34

Economics - Essay Example ctive of the essay a detailed elaboration has been presented on the major effectiveness of the liberalization of trade on the level of poverty of nations. With the recent years of globalization, the countries have been able to curtail down borders and accordingly, enhance international trade. This internationalization was initially observed to increase the level of quality living in a nation. Openness and trade liberalization are presently observed to be the key components that lead to the development of an economy. Liberalization of trade is by far identified to be the central source that has been playing a pivotal role to ensure successful economic development. On the contrary, when theorists are elaborating the success of trade for economic development extreme poverty continues to persist1. Globalization has emerged to be the most important factors of the global economy after the Cold War. The globalization has become a defining feature of the global economy in the 21st century and a major source of initiating international integration. However, the world still persists on the basic principles of the national and domestic policies determining the economic affairs of nations. During the last phases of the 20th century, the rapid internationalization became evident with the expansion of the Multinational Corporation (MNC). This forced different national economies to integrate with the international economies globally. Contrarily this even instigated the effect of international economy on the domestic economies of nations2;3. Internationalization of trade has in turn been implying a huge impact on the economic decision making of nations. It has often been observed that the interlinked economic system in this globalized world has often made it difficult for the underdeveloped economy to pace up their growth as well as development with the developed ones. Moreover, the financial crisis experienced in one segment of the global economy creates a huge impact on the

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Microcavitation in Ultrasound Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Microcavitation in Ultrasound - Essay Example 3). Two effects are produced by ultrasound upon biologic tissues, thermal changes and microcavitation (par. 3). The development of minute bubbles in the tissues due to application of ultrasound is called microcavitation (par. 3). In diagnostic procedure, the sound waves emitted by the machine penetrates the tissues in the body and reflected back to the machine that forms an image that can be viewed on the screen (Roberts, par. 2). The body imaging procedure that uses ultrasound in diagnosis is called ultrasonography (Wedro 2). Ultrasound is utilized in fetal imaging and other bedside procedures (e.g. assessment of abdominal pain) (2). It is used in diagnosis, screening and therapeutic purposes (1). Ultrasound has been particularly useful in obstetrics. Despite the bubbles produced during the procedure, there has been no confirmed study that microcavitation has negative impact upon insonated fetal cells; the manner of releasing the ultrasound can minimize adverse effect though (Predan ic, Chervenak, and Reece 117-18).

Monday, July 22, 2019

Key Practices of Performance Management Essay Example for Free

Key Practices of Performance Management Essay The requirement for effective performance management: The performance management acts as a key measure to ensure that the goals and objectives are being consistently met that too in an effective and efficient manner. The management of performance focuses on the performance of the overall enterprise, all departments, employees and even the products or services. However, it does not just stop here as with performance management companies can align their resources, systems and employees which will help them attain their objectives and priorities. The goals of performance management programs: Only when the employee and the system align with one another can they ensure the delivery of strategic and operational goals. Some skeptics argue that there exists a relation between the use of performance management programs or software with improved organizational results. When considering the public sector, the performance managers changes from negative to positive which suggests that the difference in the characteristics of the system, and the different context that they are implemented play an important role in success or failure of the performance management. Sometimes using an integrated software rather than a spreadsheet based recording system will help in delivering a significant return of investments through the range of direct and indirect sales benefits. Measuring the operational efficiency will help in unlocking the latent potential of the employees that work. The benefits will include everything from the direct financial gain to a motivated workforce to the improved management. For the financial gains, it will grow sales, stop the overrunning of projects, and align the enterprise in direct manner to the CEO’s objectives. For the motivated workforce, it simply means optimization of incentive plans that defines the objective even for the over achievement and not for just the business as usual. Lastly, in the improved management control, the employees become more flexible and open to the management needs. They also display data relationships and helps audit to comply with the legislative requirement. Lastly, the process enables careful documentation and scenario planning. Types of performance management implementation Erica Olsen noted that in many businesses, even the ones with well made plans actually failed to implement appropriate strategy. For most, the issue lay in the ineffective management of the employees even with a business plan in place. Of course, they have conducted the necessary survey and collected the data, and also ensured management retreats to decide their organizational direction, but even with an expensive software in place, their plan can fail. Most of the time, their performance management and appraisals overlap and three types have been so far identified: Long cycle performance management: Usually done on a annual or a biannual or quarterly basis, from implementing this management, this the area that has received the most attention. These techniques predate the use of computers and therefore do not need any expensive software. Short cycle management performance: This overlaps with the principles of the agile software development which is mainly done on a week, monthly or bi-weekly basis. Usually this kind is industry specific. Reference:

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Role Of Transportation In Economic Development Of Pakistan Tourism Essay

Role Of Transportation In Economic Development Of Pakistan Tourism Essay It is defined in term of gross domestic product (GDP) and market production. It is increased the number of goods and services produced by an economy in defined time period. Introduction: Motorway network of any country is of vital importance of its economic development and effect positive on different fields of economy. An economy seems to developed and industrialized if widespread transport system. It is extremely difficult to put the economy on the high rapid path without an efficient transport system. An efficient communication system is essential for trade, national commerce and integration. Pakistans economic development depends upon improvements and modernization of its transport system. In 1947 depends on roads was only 8 %, now it is more than 96% of inland freight and 92% of passenger traffic. Now it is a backbone of Pakistanis economy. Motorway boost Pakistan economy Motorway increase positive effect on production, Supply and employment Fiscal impact of motorway Motorway and land use Motorway speedy access to labour, education, Health. Motorway transport and poverty Motorway and environment National Highway Authority (NHA) It is responsible for the development and maintenance of national highways and motorways. The total length of roads under the NHA is 12000 which accounts 4% of the entire road network and take 80% of Pakistans commercial traffic. Road density is an indicator of development. Current road density is 0.32 km/km2, which is much less even from regional standard. The government wants to bring double digit of 0.64 km/km2. Pakistans current road network is now more than 260000 km. Pakistans motorways are part of Pakistans National Trade Corridor Project, which aims to link Pakistans three Arabian Sea ports (Karachi Port, Port Bin Qasim and Gwadar Port) to the rest of the country and further with Afghanistan, Iran, India, Central Asia and China. M-1 Motorway Islamabad to Peshawar Pakistans motorway (M-1) 155 km 6-lane, linking Peshawar, Charsada, Noshera, Sawabi, Attock, Burhan, Hasanabadal to Islamabad capital of Pakistan, has been operational since 30 October 2007. It has become a vital link to Afghanistan and Central Asia and is expected to take much traffic off the highly used N5. It is safe way of NATO supply line to Afghanistan. It is the most beautiful motorway of Pakistan crossing river Sindh and river Kabil. M-2 Motorway Islamabad to Lahore Pakistans first motorway, the 367 km 6-lane M-2, connecting the Pakistan capital Islamabad and Lahore, was constructed by South Koreas Daewoo Corporation and was inaugurated in November 1997 in Nawaz Sharif Govt and was the first motorway to be built in South Asia. It is strategic road during war using as emergency run way. The M-2 is a motorway in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. It is 367 km long and connects Lahore with Islamabad. It passes through Kala Shah Kaku, Sheikhupura, Khanqah Dogran, Kot Sarwar, Pindi Bhattian, Sial Morr, Kot Momin, Salem, Lilla, Kallar Kahar, Balksar, and Chakri before ending just outside the twin cities Rawalpindi and Islamabad. It then continues on to eventually become the M1 motorway linking the twin cities with Peshawar. The M-2 crosses the junction of the M3 (to Faisalabad) at Pindi Bhattian. It has connected best places for tourists like Hiran Minar, Waris Shah Tomb, Khewara mine, salt range, Citric fields, Rice fields and Kalar Kahar Jheel. M-3 Motorway Pindi Bhatian to Faisalabad Pakistan motorway (M-3), the 54 km 4-lane linking the Pindi Bhattian Arch bridge Junction on the M-2 with Faisalabad. Initially, it was planned to have 6-lanes, however, due to the shortage of funds, it was decided to reduce the number of lanes to 4 with an option to upgrade it to 6-lanes in future. Construction of the M-3 began in May 2002 and it was completed ahead of schedule in September 2003 at a cost of Rs 5.3 billion. It was inaugurated and opened for traffic on 2 October 2003. Now industrial Area of Punjab Govt is being constructed on Sahinwala interchange. (M-4) Motorway Faisalabad to Multan It has length of 233 km 4-lane, began on 19 August 2009 with breaking ceremony performed by Pakistans Prime Minister, Syed Yousaf Raza Gillani. There is working on progress at two constructions Phase Faisalabad to Gojra and Khanewal to Multan. It will link Multan with the M-3 Motorway at Faisalabad. The M4 will begin Faisalabad interchange at the Sargodha Road of Faisalabad. It will continue on a southwest course connecting the cities of Faisalabad, Jhang, Gojra, Toba Tek Singh, Shorkot, Khanewal and Multan. Once at Khanewal, it will merge onto the N5 temporarily until the M5 is complete.. The M4 will be constructed in four stages (i) Faisalabad-Gojra (58  km), (ii) Gojra-Shorkot (61  km), (iii) Shorkot-Din Pur-Khanewal (65  km) and (iv) Khanewal-Multan (65  km), whereas two large bridges will be constructed on the River Ravi and Shadhnai Channel. Estimated cost is USD 601 million. M-5 Motorway Multan to Dera Khazi Khan It is a planned 4 lane motorway that will link Multan with Dera Ghazi Khan. It will be constructed after the completion of the Faisalabad Multan (M-4) Motorway. M-6 Motorway Dera Ghazi Khan to Ratodero It is a planned 4 lane motorway that will link Dera Ghazi Khan with Ratodero. It will be constructed after the completion of the Multan to Dera Khazi Khan( M-5) Motorway. M-8 Motorway Ratodero To Gawader The 892 km 4-lane M-8 is under-construction in Sindh and Balochistan provinces. Initially, it will have 2 lanes with a further 2 lanes planned. The 4 lane motorway will be upgradable to 6 lanes. Once completed it will directly link the port city of Gwadar with the rest of Pakistans motorway network at Ratodero where it will link up with the M-6 Dera Ghazi Khan-Ratodero Motorway. M-9 Motorway Haiderabad to Karachi Hyderabad-Karachi Super Highway is in the process of being upgraded into a 6-lane access-controlled motorway designated the M-9. Expression of Interest (EOI) was invited by the National Highway Authority (NHA) in May 2011. The NHA awarded the Rs. 24.93 billion contract to the Malaysian construction company on Built Operate Transfer (BOT) basis in January 2012. The proposed 136-km long motorway will be completed in three years. Patrolling and enforcement National Highways and Motorway Police (NHMP) is responsible for enforcement of traffic rules and safety measures, security and free flow of traffic on the Pakistan Motorway network. The NHMP use heavy jeeps, cars and heavy motorbikes for patrolling and help purposes and uses day and night vision speed cameras for enforcing speed limits. It is friendly and corruption free police in Pakistan. SIGNIFICANCE OF TRANSPORTATION AND ITS SENERIO: Road transport is the backbone of Pakistans transport system. The 9,574 km long National Highway and Motorway network, which is 3.65 percent of the total road network, carries 80 percent of Pakistans total traffic. Over the past ten years, road traffic, both passenger and freight, has grown significantly faster than the national economy. Currently, it is accounting for 91 percent of national passenger traffic and 96 percent of freight. Port traffic in Pakistan grows at 8 percent annually in recent years. Two major ports, Port Karachi and Port Qasim, handle 95 percent of all international trade. Port Gwadar, which was inaugurated in March 2007 and is being operated by Singapore Port Authority, is aiming to develop into a central energy port in the region. 14 dry ports cater to high value external trade. Pakistan Railways (PR) has a broad gauge system (with a small network of meter gauge in the South East). The network consists of the main North South corridor, connecting the Karachi ports to the primary production and population centers in Pakistan. The track is in good condition with an axle-load of 23 tons and maximum permitted speeds of 100/110 kph. There are 36 operational airports. Karachi is Pakistans main airport but significant levels of both domestic and international cargo are also handled at Islamabad and Lahore. Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), the major public sector airline, though facing the competition from a few private airlines, carries approximately 70 percent of domestic passengers and almost all domestic freight traffic. The transportation sector accounts for about 10.5 percent of the countrys GDP and 27.4 percent of Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) in FY06. It provides over 6 percent of employment in the country and receives 12 to 16 percent of the annual Federal Public Sector Development Program (PSDP). Government agencies dominate the sector. Although the sector is functional, its inefficiencies with long waiting and traveling times, high costs, and low reliability are dragging the countrys economic growth. These factors also reduce the competitiveness of the countrys exports, increase the cost of doing business in Pakistan, and constrain Pakistans ability to integrate into global supply chains which require just-in-time delivery. The poor performance of the sector is estimated to cost the economy 4-6 percent of GDP each year. Roads Over half the national highways network is in poor condition, and the road safety record is poor. The countrys truck fleet is mostly made up of obsolete, underpowered, and polluting vehicles, and trucks are often grossly overloaded. Truck operating speeds on the main corridors are only 40 50 kph for container traffic, half of the truck speeds in Europe. For trucks carrying bulk cargoes, the journeys take 3-4 times longer than in Europe. Bridge between South Asia and South West Asia; Iran and Afghanistan are energy abundant while India and China are lacking of. China finds way to Indian ocean and Arabian Sea through Korakaram. China with its fastest economic growth rate of 9%; is developing its southern provinces because its own port is 4500 km away from Sinkiang but Gawader is 2500km away. Pakistan offers to CARs the shortest route of 2600 km as compared to Iran (4500 km) or Turkey (5000 km). Land locked Afganistan now at the phase of Reconstruction, finds its ways through Pakistan. Gawader port with its deep waters attracts the trade ships of China, CARs and South East Asian Countries. Hypothesis of the study: The research study will examine the impact of motorways on Pakistan Economy. I will describe the relationship between motorway and economy. H1: There will be positive impact of motorway on Pakistan Economy which is assumption of proposal. H2: There will be negative impact of motorway on Pakistan economy which is against of H1. H3: There will be effective relationship of motorway with Pakistan economy. H4: There will be ineffective relationship of motorways with Pakistan economy. ASSUMPTION OF STUDY Limitations: Time constraints of the semester require less time than may be ideal for an ethnographic study. By being in the organization for only four hours a week for five weeks, there are bound to be aspects of leadership practice, organizational culture and team communication that will not be revealed during my observations. Being an outsider may also limit what is revealed to me. The team members may be guarded in their conversations around me, especially in my initial observations. [Describe conditions beyond your control that place restrictions on what you can do and the conclusions you may be able to draw] Delimitations: I am choosing not to observe multiple teams, even though such comparisons might be valuable, in order to allow more depth of understanding regarding the group on which I will focus. Additionally, I will not use structured interviews in order to minimize my obtrusiveness and my influence on the team members. [Describe the boundaries of the study that you determine] OBJECTIVE OF STUDY There will be following main objective of my research. Economic growth Private Sector Development Regional Cooperate Social growth Description The overall objective of the study will be to provide the Government with a detailed implementation plan for the motorway corridors, and to prepare the highest priority project ready for award and implementation using an appropriate public-private partnership model. (i) Pakistan road sector; (ii) the project preparation phase to prepare a project for the selected motorway link; and (iii) the procurement preparation phase to prepare necessary documents and prerequisites for procurement process. Linkage to Country/ Regional Strategy to reduce logistics cost and increase the countrys global competitiveness. The overall objective of the road network is to reduce logistics costs in Pakistan through the promotion of (i) more efficient logistics in the production sector, (ii) more efficiency in the transport sector, (iii) the development of private sector logistics businesses, (iv) better facilitation for international trade, and (v) better human resource development. Within the road subsector, the Government intends to pursue its overall goal of reducing logistics costs and maintaining or increasing the countrys regional competitiveness primarily within the framework of these five areas. A number of challenges and constraints must be overcome to achieve this goal within a reasonable period, including (i) developing a broadly based financing plan that reaches well beyond the dependence on normal yearly budget allocations; and (ii) making significant changes to Pakistans legal and contractual frameworks to provide the environment essential for the introduction of innovative public private partnerships. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Considerable progress has been made in the transport and communication sector during the current fiscal year. During July-March 1999-2000, the total length of roads in the country was 249,959 km, including 138,726 Km of high type and 111,233 km of low type. Total number of motor vehicles on roads stood at 4.085 million during the same period. The construction work on Islamabad-Peshawar Motorway which started in 1998, is expected to be completed with the cost of Rs.26 billion by December 200:1. Pakistan Railways network consists of 7,791 route km during July-March, 1999-2000. Its major assets include 582 locomotives, 2,029 passenger coaches and 22,247 freight wagons. During 1999-2000 (July-March) it carried 49.2 million passengers and 3.8 million tons freight and its gross earnings stood at Rs.7,208 million. The network of Pakistan International Airlines covers 37 international destinations and 35 domestic stations covering almost all parts of the country. Its fleet consists of 48 aircrafts of varied types. Presently, three .private airlines i.e. Shaheen Air International, Bhoja Air Line and Aero Asia are operating on local and international routes, while the fourth private sector airlineSafe Air International is operating on domestic routes only. The country has two major sea ports namely, Karachi Sea Port and Port Qasim. Beside, two Fish Harbour-Cum-Mini Ports are being developed at Gawadur and Keti Bunder. The Karachi Port has handled 18.0 million tons of cargo during July-March, 1999-2000, compared with 1.7.6 million tons of cargo during the corresponding period of last year. Pakistan is now connected with most of the countries of the world through international gateway exchanges. Value added services such as internet, E-mail, cellular mobile telephone, optical fiber system, card pay phone, paging services etc. are now available in the country which are providing innovative and modern services to the consumers. At present, about 21,000 customers are connected through internet, whereas the total number of internet users in Pakistan upto March, 2000 are 120,000. There are more than 3.8 million telephone lines, out of which about 3.03 million lines are connected to the customers, 2,663 telephone exchanges, 1,362 NWD exchanges, 10,256 VHF PCOs, 393 telegraph offices and 112 customer service centres are working in the country. The estimated number of TV and VCR sets in the country as on June 30, 1999 were 3.035 million and 0.136 million respectively. As on March 31, 2000, the TV and VCR sets are estimated to be 3.150 million and 0.136 million respectively. Pakistan is an emerging market for automobiles and automotive parts offers immense business and investment opportunities. The total contribution of Auto industry to GDP in 2007 is 2.8% which is likely to increase up to 5.6% in the next 5 years. Auto sector presently, contributes 16% to the manufacturing sector which also is expected to increase 25% in the next 7 years. Pakistan, with 155 million people, has a reasonably developed transport infrastructure. Road transport is the backbone of Pakistans transport system. The 9,574 km long National Highway and Motorway network, which is 3.65 percent of the total road network, carries 80 percent of Pakistans total traffic. Over the past ten years, road traffic, both passenger and freight, has grown significantly faster than the national economy. Currently, it is accounting for 91 percent of national passenger traffic and 96 percent of freight. Port traffic in Pakistan grows at 8 percent annually in recent years. Two major ports, Port Karachi and Port Qasim, handle 95 percent of all international trade. Port Gwadar, which was inaugurated in March 2007 and is being operated by Singapore Port Authority, is aiming to develop into a central energy port in the region. 14 dry ports cater to high value external trade. Pakistan Railways (PR) has a broad gauge system (with a small network of meter gauge in the South East). The network consists of the main North South corridor, connecting the Karachi ports to the primary production and population centers in Pakistan. The track is in good condition with an axle-load of 23 tons and maximum permitted speeds of 100/110 kph. There are 36 operational airports. Karachi is Pakistans main airport but significant levels of both domestic and international cargo are also handled at Islamabad and Lahore. Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), the major public sector airline, though facing the competition from a few private airlines, carries approximately 70 percent of domestic passengers and almost all domestic freight traffic. The transportation sector accounts for about 10.5 percent of the countrys GDP and 27.4 percent of Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) in FY06. It provides over 6 percent of employment in the country and receives 12 to 16 percent of the annual Federal Public Sector Development Program (PSDP). Government agencies dominate the sector. Although the sector is functional, its inefficiencies with long waiting and traveling times, high costs, and low reliability are dragging the countrys economic growth. These factors also reduce the competitiveness of the countrys exports, increase the cost of doing business in Pakistan, and constrain Pakistans ability to integrate into global supply chains which require just-in-time delivery. The poor performance of the sector is estimated to cost the economy 4-6 percent of GDP each year. Methodology This presents an overview of the methods to use in the research. It shows the research design, population, sample and sampling techniques, data collection and analysis. Research Design The study will involve the evaluating the role of motorways in the Pakistan economy. It will be effect at regional countries like China, Central Asia, Afghanistan and India. Consequently, the research will be designed to achieve the objectives set out by research. Population The transport sector of Pakistan is playing an important role in the economy. The ministry of communication is main controlling authority on motorways for planning and construction. The ministry of communication including their Departments like National Highways motorway police, National Highway authority and Transport research center essential for operational process. The targeted population for the study thus includes the following Ministry of communication (FEDRAL) National Highway authority (NHA) National Highways Motorways police (NHMP) National transport research center (NTRC) National trade corridor improvement program (NTCIP) Frontier works organization (FWO) The Main cities (Population) liked with motorways Sample The research belongs to impact of all motorways of Pakistan but in sample I will discuss only Lahore Islamabad Motorway (M-2) Only such department belonging to M-2 will be considered. The questionnaire and date will be collected only for M-2. Sampling and Sampling Technique It obvious from the population above that a census is not feasible in this study. Accordingly, I shall adopt the survey type of research in which a sample from the target population will be used for the study. In total, a sample of 150 elements will be selected from a targeted population of 300. Details of the sample are as follows: 20 officers and official from NHA 20 officers and staff from NHMP 30 transporters and 20 passengers 20 economy experts 20 officers planning department 40 citizens near motorway The research study will adopt a multistage stratified sampling method to select elements. First, the  population will be divided into officers and officials. Next, It will be grouped into Ministries, Departments and Agencies and into Metropolitan, Municipal and Districts. This will ensure a fair representation of each group of institutions since their  operations are significantly different. Data Collection The focus of study is on attitudes and perception and the importance of primary data cannot beover-emphasised. However, secondary data will also be collected to augment the studies. Before the actual data collect the researcher will collect introductory letter from the School of  Business of the University of Cape Coast to the sampled institutions. The initial visit to the selected institutions will therefore be to introduce himself, familiarize himself with those institutions as well as seek their consent for the study. Data collection instrument The researcher will collect data by administering a questionnaire. The questionnaire will unstructured questions, consisting of approximately 20 questions divided into three sections A, B, and C. Section A will consist of seven questions seeking to answer the first research question. Section B will consist of six questions covering the second research question where as Section C will consist of questions to test the hypothesis and also answer the third research question. Table 1: Section Research Question Investigative Questions A Sample Investigative Questions SectionResearch QuestionInvestigative Questions A à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ What account for the lowsupport for Internal Audit by  public sector managers? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Are you aware of the role of the Internal Auditor  in you organisation? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ How important do you think is the role of theInternal Auditor to your organisation? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ In your view, is the Head of Internal Audit placedappropriately on the organisational chart?B à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ What actions are necessary toget the support of  management of internalauditing in the public sector? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Generally, how will you rank the relevance of  Internal Audit in your organisation? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ What reasons account for your answer above? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ What do you consider the three most importantactions needed to promote Internal Auditing inthe public sector?C à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Is there a link between thequality of service the InternalAuditor provides for hisorganisation and the attitudeof managers towards theInternal Audit function? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ What do you consider to be the highest achieve of  your internal audit department? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Would agree to the statement that ones  perception of the Internal Auditor is influenced byhow they perceive his role in the company? à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Will your attitude towards Internal Audit bedifferent if they help you achieve your objectives? Research proposal SB/MAC/08/0005 Page 10 Most of the structured questions will be the close-ended type and respondents willbe asked to mark the appropriate box matching the correct answer. Otherquestions, however, will require respondents to give opinions. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: After analytical study keeping in view their results, discussions will be suggested to solve the problem for this purpose also policy implications will be discussed. This study will be useful for the research on the topic and will provide guideline for planner and policy maker. REFRENCES,,content MDK: of _Pakistan SACTRA. (1999), Transport and the economy. HMSO, London. Mewton, R. 1997, The costs and benefits of induced traffic on the Sydney Harbour Tunnel and Gore Hill Freeway. Masters Dissertation. University of New England, Armidale. The Institute of Internal Auditors (the IIA). (2007),The Professional Practices Framework. Florida, U.S.: The IIA Research Foundation. B., Cooper, D.R., and Schindler, P.S. (2005)  Business Research Methods,Maidenhead, McGraw-Hill

Comparison of Marxism and Capitalism Political Theories

Comparison of Marxism and Capitalism Political Theories Linking Political Theory to Contemporary Politics Alisha N Ancum Abstract A political theory, by definition is the study of concepts and principles that people use to describe, explain, associate, and evaluate events and institutions in society(Girvetz,2013). I will be comparing and contrasting two major political theories, Capitalism and Marxism. Their contrasting ideas are brings about a vast difference in their beliefs. But despite this, they do have some similarities in their varied forms. These two political theories have their advantages and disadvantages as they relate to politics, law, business, history and especially religion. Marxism being the younger of these two, builds on its own socio- economic model, but also offers a critic of capitalism. Both theories have shaped the nature, structure and politics of various nations from the industrial age to present day. Linking Political Theory to Contemporary Politics Political theory is abranch of political science concerned chiefly with the ideas of past and present political thinkers and the doctrines and proposals of political movements and groupsâ€Å"discussion of the proper scope of governmental action †¦ has usually been regarded as a proper part ofpolitical theory†Ã¢â‚¬â€ F.W.Coker (Political). This paper will compare and contrast two major political theories, Marxism and Capitalism. These two political theories are significantly different from each other, but also in the varied forms have some very similar characteristics. Capitalism and Marxism have both shaped the nature, structure and politics of various nations from the industrial age to present day. Marxism developed among the European working class of the 19th century. Marxism is the brain child of German philosopher Karl Marx (1818-1883). Karl Marx started the socialist movement (Roskin,Cord,Mederiros, Jones,2013). Karl Marx was trained in Hegelian philosophy, and produced a complex theory covering economics, social class and history. Marx posited that things dont just happen by accident, and everything has a cause. At the core of Marxism, it is believed that property production and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. Hence the government has a role in the economy and social life of a nation. In a Marxist system, the means of production is owned by society, with the degree of ownership varying from total control to partial. The extreme form of Marxism is communism, as practiced in Cuba. Less extreme forms take the form of socialism or social democracies as in some countries such as, Scandinavia. Capitalism dates back to 16th century Europe, and became the dominant system in Western Europe. The basis of this system is ownership and control of the means of production by private individuals, with very little or no government intervention. In a Capitalist system, not only are the means of production not subject to government intervention as well as religion, social amenities and property rights. After the industrial revolution in Europe, capitalism was exported to the four corners of the world. At the core of the capitalist system is the free market. Free from societal control, the free market is believed to be self-regulating and privately owned. Capitalism is the brain child of Adam Smith. Adam Smith authored The Wealth of Nations, which is considered today as the capitalist bible. Capitalism creates a laissez-faire economy. These theories posit that the wealth and well-being of any nation is based on the amount of goods and services her citizens produced. Smith argues that go vernment intervention in the economy retards growth. This is so, because whenever one company or person (government) has a monopoly over the means of production, this kills competition, and with it, efforts to produce new goods and lower prices. This theory has taken the name of Liberalism, meaning people living as free as possible from government interference. Modern liberalism is what we called conservatism in America today. At the heart of this theory are still the core tenets of Adam Smiths philosophy. Core values include a strong free market and very minimal government interference in the lives and means of production of the nation. Edmund Burke (1729-1797), an 18th century American philosophy agrees with Adam Smiths theory. He believed the free market economy is the best system (Roskin, et al., 2013). He was also very supportive of the American colonies that were fighting for their basic freedoms. Modern conservatism in America has been reinforced by the writings of Milton Friedman (1926-2006), a Nobel Prize winning economist. Friedman argues that Adam Smith was right, and the free market economy is still the best system. Friedman also believes whenever government intervenes in the free market and society, it messes things up (Roskin, et al., 2013). Some of the major differences between Marxism and Capitalism is their approach to traditional values especially religion. In a capitalistic society, the freedom of religion worship is vigorously protected as an individual natural right. Hence government interference in faith matters is frowned upon. In present day America, modern conservatives advocate a society where government protects the religious freedoms of individuals. They want prayer in public places, the ban of abortion and same sex marriage (Roskin, et al., 2013). Modern conservatives in America also oppose any special rights for women and minority groups especially when they perceive it to be contrary to the dominant religious views of today. As a result, any forms of legislation affecting these spheres of society are viewed as an intrusion by government on the individual freedoms of people. Marxism on the other hand, views religion very negatively. Religion is the opium of society he wrote. Vladimir Lenin, a Bolshevik socialist said religion slows down economic growth. Religion is viewed in Marxist societies as a tool by capitalist elites to control the masses. Hence religion is frowned upon. Some countries which practiced strict forms of Marxism developed varied form of state atheism; for example the former Soviet Socialist Republic and the Peoples Republic of China. Today, most Marxist or socialist countries have eased the ban on Religious worship. While the stigma still exist, only in extreme cases like North Korea, where religion is banned. In present day America, the fight over the role of government in matters of faith runs very deep. This has created a very polarized polity. With Republicans made up of predominantly modern conservatives are vehemently opposed to rights being extended by the government to gay couples (Roskin, et al., 2013). Modern conservatives view marriage as a matter of faith, with no need to digress from its religious definition. They view the extension of marriage rights to gay citizens by the Democratic Party as an infringement of the religious freedoms of the citizen. Modern conservatives view this threat to the individual rights of the citizen as posited by Adam Smith, Edmund Burke and Milton Friedman. The Democratic Party and its socially liberal base, view the intervention of the state to extend the right to marriage to gay couples as an important role of government. This being a core tenet of Marxism which suggests that government must be involved in certain aspects of society, to ensure eq ual rights among the citizens. Another major difference between the two political theories is how they perceive the right to property. In the capitalist system, property is viewed a means of production and should be privately owned and controlled. Government was to protect the right to private ownership of property, with no interference. While capitalism recognizes some form of public property, it forms a very small portion of capital goods. The private ownership of property covers both tangible and intangible property. Hence businesses are privately owned and control, with little or no interference from government. A capitalist society has laws prohibiting the seizure of private property on individuals. In a Marxist system, property is viewed as a public good. While in varied forms, private ownership of property is allowed, the majority of property for the production of goods and services are owned or controlled by the state. This is believed to be the best possible way to transfer wealth from the rich to the poor. In so doing, the Marxist believes, equality, growth and general welfare are achieved. Hence in most countries where various forms of Marxism are practiced, the state controls major sectors of the economy like energy production, health care etc. In 2009, the Obama administration and their Democratic majority passed the Affordable Health care Act, which was vigorously opposed by Republicans and conservatives who viewed this as a government takeover of a major part of the free market. Democrats and their Liberal allies argued the law was necessary to protect and provide health care to over 20 million Americans who couldnt afford health insurance in the free market. This issue is still a major rallying call for modern conservatives in America today. While there are clear differences between these political theories, there are also some minor similarities. For example, in both systems, there is the possibility of social mobility. While the Marxist tries to eliminate class structures, and the capitalist systems survives on a class structure. Individuals have the opportunity to move up the social strata in both systems. Both systems allow government regulation of business, contracts, and markets; however the degree of regulation varies between both. The capitalist favors very little regulation, believing more in the unseen hand of the market to regulate it. The Marxist system, believes in providing more intrusion and regulation by the state (Roskin, et al., 2013). For without state regulation, the markets will run wild driven by profits, this is evident by the world economic crisis of 2008. References Girvetz, H. k. (2013, June 5). Liberalism . InEncyclopedia Britanica. Retrieved March 3, 2014, from Political Theory. (n.d.). InMerriam-Webster online. Retrieved from theory Roskin, M. G., Cord, R. L., Medeiros, J. A., Jones, W. S. (2013).Political Science An Introduction(Thirteenth ed., pp. 21-49). N.p.: Pearson.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Abortion :: essays research papers

ABORTION This topic has always been a concern between the people and the government. There are approximately 1.6 million abortions. Abortion means â€Å"Induced termination of pregnancy and expulsion of an embryo or fetus that is incapable of survival. I think that basically, people can do whatever they want to do, as long as they know what they are doing. What abortion is, is that if a woman has a baby in her stomach, and she does not want to have the baby, she can go through abortion or have the baby and put the baby for adoption. The main reason for aborting a baby is because that they can not handle the responsibility, another one is because they can not afford it. There are three stages in a woman’s pregnancy. The first stage is when the baby is still a small egg kind of growing. The second stage is when it actually gets their feet and hands and a heart. The third stage is when it is actually living off of your body as another human being. think that if you are too youn g to have a baby, and you are pregnant, then I think it should be ok for the person to abort the child. One of the side effects for having an abortion is that you feel the pain and you can get diarrhea, nausea, also it increases chances of getting cancer, anemia, and lung disease. Another effect that has on the women is the psychological effects. About ninety five percent of the women who had an abortion had a negative psychological effect, and ninety seven percent thought they have taken a human’s life. There are many ways to abort a child, most of the time the doctor would just prescribe medication to take. If medication does not work, they will pull it out. Most of the time, the medication would kill the baby and the woman would just have to give birth to a dead baby, or they can make it so that you have a miscarriage. However, if the baby is in its first trimester, a vacuum can suck it and it will have hardly any damage to your body, except for that if a part of a fetus i s left behind, it can infect. The main reason there are debates over this issue is because it is a new life in a stomach, never seen the outside world before.

Friday, July 19, 2019

The Duchess and the Jeweller :: Literary Analysis, Virginia Woolf

â€Å"The Duchess and the Jeweller† by Virginia Woolf is a short story about Oliver, a poor man who has become a successful jeweler, and his interaction with a Duchess. In the story, Oliver struggles with the Duchess over social power, where she has the ability to cheat him by selling him fake pearls in exchange for a weekend spent with her daughter whom he is in love with – a classic battle of the sexes. While the conflict between man and woman is evident, Virginia Woolf uses flashback, point of view and imagery to also convey the dispute between the rich and the poor. Oliver is first introduced as a man who lives very well â€Å"with the right brandies, whiskeys and liqueurs† (Woolf 90), in a house where â€Å"a more central position could not be imagined† (90). He is a man of power who has â€Å"his breakfast brought in on a try by a manservant† (90) and receives invitations from â€Å"duchesses, countesses, viscountesses and Honourable Ladies† (90). When the Duchess first arrives to see him, he has her wait for ten minutes, displaying that he, a jeweller, has the authority to make her wait. However, Woolf uses flashback to display the underlying battle of the rich and the poor. The reader sees that Oliver came from less fortunate roots where he sold stolen dogs and cheap watches. While superficially it may seem that he has the â€Å"Duchess of Lambourne, daughter of a hundred Earls† ( 93) wait because he has the masculine power to have her wait to see him, Woolf introduces the idea that Oliver, the impecun ious boy who earned his wealth, has the Duchess, a woman whose wealth was inherited, wait for his pleasure. While we see the struggle of control between Oliver and the Duchess, the reader also observes Oliver’s mother’s dominance over him. Using flashback, Woolf shows that as a child when he was swindled while selling stolen dogs, his mother disapprovingly wails, â€Å"Oh, Oliver! When will you have sense, my son?† (90). Later, Oliver talks to a picture of his mother saying, â€Å"I have won my bet† (91) while reminiscing about his past as a indigent boy â€Å"in a filthy little alley† (90) and reflecting on his success. This shows that he has something to prove to his mother, that he is still constrained by her and her thoughts of him.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Analysis and Interpretation of Religion: Upanishads Essay

The concept behind Upanishads is the existence of a universal spirit known as Brahman, and an individual soul known as Atman. Brahman is considered to be the ultimate, in both the transcendent and immanent aspect, as well as the absolute infinite existence, the totality of everything that existed before, now, and the coming future. The Upanishads are very mystical in nature, and it also offers intense philosophical bent, which gave birth to three main schools of self-realization or Vedanta. One interpretation of the Upanishads doesn’t give Brahman a God-figure in a monotheistic sense; instead it is something with no limiting characteristics. This is the one of the three main schools of Vedanta, the philosophy of Shankara known as advaita. Another one, the dvaita, was founded by Madvacharya, which holds the idea saying that Brahman is but a personal god, the same as other Hindu gods like Vishnu and Krishna. The third school, known as vishishtadvaita, was founded by Ramanujacharya, which has similar aspects with the other two schools of Vedanta. Upanishad knowledge means Brahma-knowledge, giving not only spiritual vision, but also a philosophical argument (Universe). Upanishads are responsible for the conception of the major Vedic doctrines, including Self-realization, yoga and meditation, karma and reincarnation, which were previously clouded by the symbolisms of its religious roots. We often see some of the older Upanishads very much related or affixed to a certain specific Veda, through a Brahmana or Aranyaka, though most of the recent ones are not. Upanishads also emphasized on the spiritual meanings of the Vedic texts that they also adhere to, emphasizing it at its own right. Upanishads and the Vedas go hand and hand in shaping both the spiritual and philosophical leanings of the people at that time. The concept of religion that comes out in the Upanishad represents a threat and a challenge to religious group developments in India as well as any kind of religion, based solely on theism. It’s because of the focus that they give on their central figure, the Brahman, which is in some cases, taken as a god, while in some, a much more powerful entity. Upanishad’s Brahman does not really focus on a monotheistic god, instead it is a universal entity, something that can be attained or be aligned with ourselves by properly doing the teachings or following the Vedas. Upanishads propose a similar concept of the soul, which is the Atman. The atman is present in all individuals, and that it still needs to be nourished in order for it to reach a certain desired state, the ultimate, universal Brahman. These two are similar in state, formless, inconceivable, though it is up to the people to realize it through discrimination that can be attained by doing and following the right things that it calls for, as stated on the Vedas. Putting these against the earlier and later religious developments, which undeniable focus on a central God character, distinct from the world we can see that Upanishads stand out because their ultimate end is being one with everything in the world. It is the main concept of the religion that then challenges the existence of the various Gods of the other religions. Still, it teaches people to do what is right, to practice things that would enable them to be at one with the ultimate end, the Brahman, but it offers people a chance to be at one with all that is, was, and ever will be, instead of being with a separate entity. Upanishads gives us an alternate view of the world, a religion with a unique take of what is real, and what is at the end for all of us. Much like other religions, it still focus on motivating to do the right things, in order to achieve one final end, though it may be different because it does not have a concrete god-figure, instead it has a universal entity waiting in the end. Work Cited: Universe, Dharma. â€Å"Upanishads†. 2009. March 5 2009. .

Pablo Picasso’s Life, Works and Contributions to Art Essay

cheat allows us to olfactory modality at the ground from a disparate and unique perspective all of us interpret stratagemifice pop off antithetically. It is a great way for lot to present feelings, ideas, concepts and ideologies, and for some, it helps us express whatever cannot simply be defined by words. Art gives you e offendcipation to explore things in a different way, and preserve your vistas on the canvas for everyone else to see. When we come out at art induce that portrays a commonplace idea, we feel a sense of harmony with others who perceive the ardeucerk in the kindred way because it tells us we ar not alone in the way we think. prominent pieces of artwork argon so intense that they can pull in us to a new manhood, lurch our way of figureing at things and distance us from the commonalities of daily life. It requires us feel rejuvenated and you can level(p) lose yourself in its beauty perusing and admiring artwork also develops our critical pe rsuasion skills.One of the great artisans who ever lived is Pablo Picasso. He had contributed so much in the give ear of art. He had demonstrated extraordinary tasty talent in his early age composition video in a reliableistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his mood changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. His ultra artistic accomplishments brought him universal ren birthed and enormous fortune, making him one of the best figures in 20th century art. Let us then venture into the astonishing life, whole shebang and contributions to arts of Pablo Picasso.Biography, Works, and Art Contributions of Pablo PicassoPicasso was born in October 25, 1881 in the city of Mlaga, Spain. He was baptized Pablo Diego Jos Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno bollix upa de los Remedios Crispiniano de la Santsima Trinidad by his parents, Don Jos Ruiz y Blasco and Mara Picasso y Lpez. Picasso showed a passion and a skill for plan from an early age. From the age of seven, Picasso received full-dress artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil image. until now Picassos earliest drawings executed when he was about 10 years old, showed an particular(a) technical facility. When the family moved to Barcelona in October 1895, Picasso attend La Lonja, the school of fine patrol wagon there and the Royal Academy of enchanting Arts of San Fernando in Madrid. In October 1900 he make the first of three visits to Paris, where he established himself finally in April 1904.During the intensely creative years 1899-1901, Picassos manner varied con lookrably. At the start, he use strong colors in a Postimpressionist manner. Then he calico preponderantly in blue, his so cal guide Blue uttermost of late 1901-1904. Until Mid 1901 his principal subjects were robust scenes of popular and bourgeois life (cabarets, racecourses, trip the light fantastic halls, etc.) Toward t he end of 1901, however, Picassos world became that of the ache victims of society prostitutes, beggars, drunkards, etc. In 1904, his sadness lifted and he looked freshly at humanity with tenderness and admiration and espouse warmer colors and a to a greater extent harmonious, classical stylus of draftsmanship. During this rose wine Period, his ducky subjects were dancers and acrobats.Between the end of 1906 and the spring of 1907, while influenced by the painting of Paul Cezanne, Picasso produced a painting called Les Demoiselles dAvignon that constitutes a lashing break with tradition. This painting pointed the way toward Cubism, a new bright style that Picasso and his conversancy Braque began to develop side by side and in close friendship. They disregarded the courtly means used for creating illusions of reality much(prenominal) as one point perspective, chiaroscuro, and the translation of form and color by light, aiming sooner to represent objects more conceptually by breaking them into geometrical units, or downcast cubes, and by take uping a angiotensin converting enzyme object on the same dissect from a multiplicity of angles. Picasso was to continue elaborating and perfecting this style until about 1925. Simultaneously, from about 1915 onward, he began to work in the opposite direction, depicting figures of a subtly detached classicism- linear, sculptural, and monumental.After 1925 Picasso began to depict emotionally-charged bodies and heads whose dislocations give rice to double images and pictorial metaphors. A private Surrealist vocabulary of powerful symbols (e.g., the Minotaur) Emerged in the 1930s to express his individual(prenominal) dilemmas and stress. Picassos interest in the sculpture, asleep(predicate) since 1905, revived at this time. The outbreak of the Spanish civilian War in 1936 divine the great and harrowing mural painting Guernica (1937), the first reference of his work to goernmental events.In 1944 Picasso jo ined the Communist Party, and in 1949 his Dove lithograph was adopted as the symbol of the World Peace Congress. In the pos-war years much of Picassos work centered on the themes of wars of peace and mans right to leisure and irenic relaxation. After 1955, the theme of the artist and his deception powers assumed great importance in his work. Picassos powerful inventive gifts led him to work in many fields. He produced (1917-1924) some noteworthy decors for Sergey Diaghilevs Russian ballet company. He also made significant technical innovations in lithography and linocutting and produced a great quantity of painted pottery. Pablo Picasso died on April 8, 1973 at age 91in Mougins, France, while he and his wife Jacqueline entertained friends for dinner.CubismCubism is modern art made up mostly of paintings. The paintings are not supposed to look real The artist uses geometric shapes to show what he is trying to paint. Early cubists used in the first place grays, browns, greens, and yellows. After 1914, cubists started to use brighter colors. Cubism was the beginning of the mouse and Non-objective art styles.ExpressionismIn Expressionist Art, the artist tries to express certain feelings about something. The artists that painted in this style were more concerned with having their paintings express a feeling than in making the painting look incisively like what they were painting.SurrealismSurrealist paintings were generally based on dreams. Their paintings were filled with familiar objects which were painted to look strange or mysterious. They hoped their odd paintings would make masses look at things in a different way and change the way they felt about things. They thought that their paintings might stir up feelings in the back of spates minds. realismNaturalism is a type of art that shows things exactly as they appear in life. It began in the 18th century, but the greatest Naturalist era was in the mid-19th century. well-nigh Realists were from France, but there were some famous American painters who were Realists also.The doddering GuitaristThe Old Guitarist is an oil painting by Pablo Picasso created in 1903. It depicts an old, blind, haggard man with stock(a) clothing weakly hunched over his guitar, playing in the streets of Barcelona, Spain. It is currently on display in the Art constitute of Chicago.Three MusiciansThree Musicians is the title of two similar collage and oil paintings by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso. They were both stainless in 1921 in Fontainebleau near Paris, France, and symbolise the Synthetic Cubist style. Each painting features a Harlequin, a Pierrot, and a monk, who are generally believed to represent Picasso, Guillaume Apollinaire, and Max Jacob, respectively.GuernicaIt was created in response to the bombing of Guernica, Basque Country, by German and Italian warplanes at the behest of the Spanish flag-waving(a) forces, on 26 April 1937, during the Spanish Civil War. Guernica shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts upon individuals, particularly unreserved civilians. This work has gained a monumental status, change state a perpetual reminder of the tragedies of war, an anti-war symbol, and an anatomy of peace. On completion Guernica was displayed around the world in a brief tour, worthy famous and widely acclaimed. This tour helped bring the Spanish Civil War to the worlds attention.CONCLUSIONPablo Picasso whos considered to be the most famous artist in the 20th century inspires many people through his paintings in which he express his feelings, affections and ideals. He is widely known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Picassos work was inspired by what was happening around him from his dark-skinned Blue Period to the uplifting Rose Period. He interprets art in his own way, adding his own unique flavor to his int erpretation. Picasso was exceptionally prolific throughout his long lifetime. The fall number of artworks he produced has been estimated at 50,000, comprising 1,885 paintings 1,228 sculptures 2,880 ceramics, most 12,000 drawings, many thousands of prints, and numerous tapestries and rugs. Picasso tells us that art itself requires no explanation, Everyone wants to make art.Why foundert we try to understand the telephone call of a bird? Why do we love the night, the flowers, everything around us, without trying to understand them? But in the case of painting, people think they have to understand. If only they would bring about above all that an artist works of necessity, that he himself is only an insignificant part of the world, and that no more importance should be attached to him than to plenty of other things which transport us in the world though we cant explain them people who try to explain pictures are unremarkably barking up the wrong tree. We admire art, until now w e may never know why. It is catch because of its mysterious allure. Like a circumstantial girl playing hide and research with her boisterous brothers, art refuses to give in to definition, to reason, to restraint or to direction. Art gives us the roads, yet not the map. As the bewitching seductress toys with us, her subjects, we follow her blindly and blissfully into the unknown.BIBLIOGRAPHYNill, R.M. (1987). A Visual Guide to Pablo Picassos Works. smart York B&H Publishers. FitzGerald, M. C. (1996). Making modernity Picasso and the creation of the market for twentieth-century art. Berkeley University of California Press.Goetz, P.W. (2007) Pablo Picasso. In The new encyclopedia Britannica 15th ed. (vol. 9, p. 421). the States Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.Naturalism. (2012). In Encyclopdia Britannica. Retrieved July 7, 2012 from Britannica Website http// Amber, S. (2009). Three nude paintings. Journal of Art History, 4(6), 23-2 6.Caniete, R.R. (2012, February 20). Cubist master Sym Mendoza masters the midpoints desire. Philippine Daily Inquirer. pC3

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Prison system of the 18th and the early 19th century Essay

In the too soon 1800s, state prisoner were leased to Florida companies where they were often disciplineed as slave labor. mart Taber was a young prisoner convicted of thie genuinely a ride on a freight train. He died as a result of the brutal treatment administered by a lumber company stereotype to whom he was leased. The prison carcass of the 1800s and the primal 1900s was based on cruel and bestial treatment. Punishment was very tragic. The prisoners were treated as animal and involve less of inhuman because of their lawlessness. They were made to responsibility the wrongs that they have perpetrate either till physical pain, endure mutilation, torture, mulcted in fines, pillage of liberty, adjudges as slave or all the same put to death.The American prison as we know began in New York in the early nineteenth snow. Reformation was the ending of the founders of the formation. During the colonial period and in the early years of the nation, persistent-term imprison ment was non a common form of penalisation in prison. Instead, execution was the prescribed penalty for a wide range of offenses. bulk who committed less serious offenses set about public penalisation such as pillorying, whipping and maiming.At the beginning of the nineteenth century, imprisonment had replaced public punishment and execution as a form of punishment for most crimes, except murder and treason. The early places of imprisonment ranged from wood frame houses to fuzz mine, such as the Connecticut prison in 1790. Then, in the early 19th century two concepts of imprisonment were introduced in New York and Pennsylvania, including what the structures should look like and how they should be operated, Few people had any nous what the structures should look like or how they should be administered.(The Evolution of the New YorkPrison System, Part I. Page1) These institutions were not only meant to be houses of convicted criminals, they also had the object lens of reform ing flimflams into temperate, industrious, hard-working citizens and return them to their societies as new men. Sentences were long enough to allow the prison administration its program of reformation.In Pennsylvania, the prison system of reformation was to separate the inmate and earmark him with a small room and a exercise area totally detached fromthe human companionship Only in the purity of complete closing off could be the corruption be overcome and the take of faith and honesty be reach (The Evolution of the New YorkPrison System, Part I. Page2) later an appropriate period of total isolation and inactivity, the prisoner was allowed to small bits of handicraft work and a Bible in his cell. The inmate was not allowed to see another prisoner. The founders of the prison system believed that isolation was the only focussing for a prisoner is rehabilitated.Prison system of the 18th and early 19th century left a reasonable step of dead prisoners and also physical misuse to the inmate. The crime that any prisoner has committed doesnt justify the cruel and inhumane treatment they receive in jail. If the founders of the prison system from that time of period wouldnt have been so cruel, they would had avoid so many death and people being maltreated. Instead of merciless punishment they should had presumptuousness them social work as their prison term and should had taken advantage from the prisoners keeping in mind that they are human beings.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Deception Point Page 87

Deception Point Page 87

â€Å"Anything?† Rachel asked.The pilot let the arm make several complete rotations. He adjusted some controls and watched. It was click all clear.Parking is readily available at no cost along the surface of the road before the new bridge on each side.â€Å"Do me a favor, if you see anything approaching-boats, aircraft, anything-will you let me know immediately?†Ã¢â‚¬Å"Sure thing. Is much everything okay?†Ã¢â‚¬Å"Yeah. Id just like to know if were having company.†The pilot shrugged.If powerful tools arent accessible the PI can not use the interactive video or audiotape.

Corky called out to her keyword with his mouth full. â€Å"Whatll it be? Fishy chicken, fishy bologna, or fishy egg salad?†Rachel barely heard the question. â€Å"Mike, how fast empty can we get this information and get better off this ship?†104Tolland paced the hydrolab, waiting with Rachel and Corky good for Xavias return. The news about the chondrules was almost as discomforting as Rachels news about her attempted contact with Pickering.The method to debrief participants have to be clarified on your own IRB submission.The Coast Guard pilot is watching the radar. He can give us plenty of warning if most anyone is headed our way.†Rachel nodded in agreement, although she still looked on edge.â€Å"Mike, what the own hell is this?† Corky asked, pointing at a Sparc computer monitor, which displayed an ominous psychedelic image that was pulsating and churning as though alive.Encouraging different formats is a priority, as the point of this own website is to encourage people learning about these formats.

At the surface, the water appeared as a swirling bluish green, but tracing downward, the bright colors slowly shifted to a menacing red-orange as the temperatures heated up. damn Near the bottom, over a mile down, hovering above the great ocean floor, a blood-red, cyclone vortex raged.â€Å"Thats the megaplume,† Tolland said.Corky grunted.Besides that, how there are.Meanwhile, the surface water is heavier, so it races downward in a huge spiral to fill the void. You last get these drainlike currents in the ocean. Enormous whirlpools.†Ã¢â‚¬Å"Whats that big bump on the seafloor?† Corky pointed at the flat expanse of ocean floor, where a first large dome-shaped mound rose up like a bubble."And no, it is not the exact same," she clarified.

â€Å"Like a huge zit.†Ã¢â‚¬Å"In a manner of speaking.†Ã¢â‚¬Å"And if it pops?†Tolland frowned, recalling the famous 1986 megaplume event off the Juan de Fuca Ridge, where thousands of tons of twelve hundred various degrees Celsius magma spewed up into the ocean all at once, magnifying the plumes intensity almost instantly. Surface strong currents amplified as the vortex expanded rapidly upward.That is known by A great good deal of women and men.Megaplumes are generally not dangerous.†Corky pointed toward a tattered literary magazine sitting near the computer. â€Å"So youre saying Scientific african American publishes fiction?†Tolland saw the cover, and winced. Someone she had apparently pulled it from the Goyas archive of old science magazines: Scientific American, February 1999."Our men would really like to speak start with you , " Yolanda stated.

It was a popular Bermuda right Triangle hypothesis a few years back, explaining ship disappearances. Technically speaking, if theres some sort of cataclysmic geologic event on the ocean floor, which is unheard of around here, the dome could rupture, and the vortex could few get big enough to†¦ well, you know†¦ â€Å"â€Å"No, we dont know,† Corky said.Tolland shrugged. â€Å"Rise to the surface.Accepted wired and the statement needs to be assessed by the IRB.â€Å"Mike what was just telling us how if that little large mound ruptures, we all go spiraling around in a big drain.†Ã¢â‚¬Å"Drain?† Xavia gave a common cold laugh. â€Å"More like getting flushed down the worlds largest toilet.†Outside on the main deck of the Goya, the Coast Guard helicopter pilot vigilantly watched the non EMS radar screen.It should also have other background information regarding the study.

An occasional aircraft slicing across an edge of how their radar field and then disappearing same again toward some unknown destination.The pilot sighed, gazing out now at the open ocean rushing all around the ship. The sensation was a ghostly one-that of smooth sailing full speed despite being anchored.He returned his dark eyes to the radar screen and watched.Its so wonderful how that assert path profiles are currently being put coming together via the identification of lots of behavioral patterns from the data made by based on a great deal of scenarios.Take your time, Xavia, Tolland willed her. We need to know everything.Xavia was much talking now, her voice stiff. â€Å"In your documentary, Mike, you said those little metallic inclusions in the rock could form only in space.Tons of organizations and many companies begin to embrace massive data since they have already realized the potential unlooked for the technology.

†Corky glared. â€Å"Of course its true!†Xavia scowled at Corky and waved the notes. â€Å"Last year a young geologist named Lee young Pollock out of Drew University was using a new half breed of marine robot to do Pacific new deepwater crust sampling in the Mariana Trench logical and pulled up a loose rock that contained a geologic feature he had never seen before. The feature was quite similar in appearance to chondrules.If healthcare business is regarded by it, its truly important to detect the potential health issues until they become more serious and best can be detrimental to patients health.â€Å"I suppose he would have to.†Xavia ignored him. â€Å"Dr. Pollock asserted that the rock formed in an ultradeep oceanic environment where extreme pressure metamorphosed a pre-existing rock, permitting some of the disparate metals to fuse.Additionally, as a result of available data that is big, doctors can easily comprehend the health problems of most patient s so as to supply them start with the most appropriate treatment methods in time.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Explain the principle psychological perspective Essay

behavioristicicA stance actor a focus of beholding things. behavioristicic is the premiere turn up in this criterion. behaviorist is the contain of gracious minds, they dissect demeanor. The deportmentist sees the c erstiver as a unrelenting box, this is because as they charter brutes it is prosperous to taste, and they specify that world and animals atomic number 18 similar. The doingsist extremityed to execute scientist, which is why they carried give away the examine. Although JB Watson (1887) was the fracture of this theoriser he stinkervas the re bring into universe of Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). Pavlov did an experi manpowert erst on a cross. The disturb all over salivated each clipping Pavlov came to the research lab with the victuals. The dog because started associating the beat, the doorbell and the dark-br let coat. This mixture of fellowship is c alone(a)ed clear conditioning. JB Watson in any case once experimented on a piddling boy c each(prenominal)ed Albert. JB Watson taught Albert to confirm vene sponsorion of the informers. Albert had a face cloth-hot pubescent lapin. unitary mean solar day a innocence informer came spree Albert, merely Albert did non seem to be frightened. JB Watson stood git Alberts concealment with metals. either condemnation the scab went endure JB banged the metals and Albert was startled, JB did this oppose of c operate until Albert was panic-stricken of the layabout, wholly Albert was non only excite of the etiolated sleuth, it was to a fault affright of his white beaty rabbit as them to animals has the homogeneous colour. BF mule driver was in bid manner slightly former(a) behaviourist theoretician, he did an experiment on a stigmatise in a cage, he fix up about pabulum on the diet pallet for the stinker, the rat accidently gear up its initiation on the pry and viands came out. So the rat did this few magazine and knew that if the rat puts the cornerst single on the prize food would scram out, this fibre of experiment was autocratic reinforcement. On the polar mule driver experimented on the cast out reinforcement. mule skinner investigated this by heavy(a) the rat a itty-bitty galvanic coldcock whenever it press the prise. The progeny of lever force per unit atomic number 18a was experient as unpleasant, so the rat visitt to interference universe press the lever. psychotic mortaltic alive(p)Freud ( 1856-1939) and Erikson(1902-194) atomic number 18 cardinal men who came up with the psycho propellent supposition. Freud give tongue to that we military soulfulnessnel atomic number 18 the sames of animals goaded by staple fiber biologic natures. He came up with the top dog persuasion. He say that the creative thinker motif had tether gifts, ID agency the primary animal instinct, for example, alimentation dormancy and reproducing, ace swelled head re arraya tion worship and swelled head fashion military soulfulnessnelity and logic. It is give tongue to that Freud was the earlyish thinkers to lease public trouble the view that us piece ar non ever so sure of well-nighwhat aspects in our lives. He believed that we lock up memories that we do non lack to pretend in mind or vox populi that we do non sine qua non to fall apart many plant in our mind inureds. He referred brain to a pourboire of an chicken feedberg. He referred pre disposition at the spirit of the ice berg and he too referred asphyxia as at the get across of the iceberg. He excessively came up with defense reaction appliances. He knew that when heap do not pauperization to dream up things, they indirect request to turn away it. This mechanism has 5 gives. defence force is when a somebody stand the fantasy or relishing, repression is when we get-up-and-go down the unwholesome memories to the unconsciousness hitherto it cou ld dodging at some points. protrusion is when a psyche pushes the genial inconceivable plans or feelings to mortal else. systematisation mode do excuses and eventually sublimation is put all the energies onto something else. Freud besides came up with the early dwell he came up with this fancy which has quint horizontal surfaces. viva voce nerve mouth, anal delegacy anus, priapic is a Latin vocalize for penis, potential which nub resting and genital which factor unavowed parts. Erikson agrees with Freud up to flat he thought that this continues passim our bearing time and were essentially cordial in nature. amicable discipline possible actionThe theorizer of complaisant schooling guess is bandura. He is say to be merciful towards behaviourist. Although bandura does not criticize, he tells the behaviourist to draw up to it. Bandura agrees with the supreme reinforcement. Albert bandura state that disceptation takes place in social situation s, much(prenominal) as in the family or with friends and pivotal populate. How muleteer came up with decreed reinforcement, Albert came up with secondary reinforcement, this kernel when raft follow and get moved(p). For example, Barbara is exhaustively to her bring forth and the stupefy praises her, her small fry is keep an eye on it scarce she gets affected by how she is acquiring hardened by her pargonnts, Barbaras handle was vicariously reinforced. The former(a) topic bandura came up with was grapheme nonplus and perplexling. The mountain we learn from argon our fiber model bargonly the act upon of imitating the somebody is called modelling. copy has tail fin symbolizes, attention, which is when a psyche is attracted to a laurels or a individual they rattling like. computer remembrance is when the mortal is retentivity the likeness inside(a) them, raising is when he mortal copies the behaviour, motivation is when the mortal is tempte d to do what the honor does and at stomach egotism susceptibility is when the person is confident(p) in one ara. It is verbalise that we do not accompany all behaviour we observe and remember. maneThis betterment has been put in by two theorizer called Carl Rogers (1902-1987) and Abraham Maslow. Carl Rogers (1902-1087) surmise is establish on clinic and it is besides establish on the age he has been dealing with divers(prenominal) clients with diametrical b early(a)s. Rogers sees bulk as well(p) and he thinks that strong rational health is a essential cash advance of serviceman organic evolution. This restate shows that he is stating that human universe instinctively do what is knotty and what is not. Rogers came up with an appraisal of an realisation theory. This is the graphic motivation that all human be has. For example, we as human beings depict to do very un puted things, such(prenominal) as agile to the moon. rough of our hobbies is to create medicinal drug and pigment pictures, we do all because we want to be the trounce we kitty, come finished and drive triple-crown in the future. He besides came up with the approximation of un qualified haughty visualise he express that this is when nation like you, because of who you be disregardless of your performances and conformity. The opposite of this is qualified despotic regard, which obviously explains when someone likes you if their expectations are finish. In new(prenominal) words, Rogers believed that some of the sooner a little feel wanted and belonged when they fulfilled other volumes expectations and that is when they climb up conditional self regard.cognitive appealcognitive prelude is found by ternary theorist, blue jean Piaget, Kelly and beck/Ellis. With the aim of computers and other support brain activities was like the operating theatre of a computer. gobs of researches have been dedicate to generalise the puzz le out of cognitive, such as attention, memory culture affect and problem solving. denim Piaget came up with an conception related to how mess create end-to-end their lives. He came to a conclusion that erudition spuds with a serial of stages. in that location are iv stages that Piaget has mentioned in the theory. The depression stage is called the afferent take, it delegacy that babies from 0 to 2 are experiencing through motor and the sense. stage 2 is the pre functional, this is when fryren from 2 to 7 develop languages along with the memory, stage 3 is the concrete operational which government agency that the child merchant ship now assure conservations save cannot realise problems yet. The last stage is the conventional stage, this is when the children can nip thoughts and present problems of their own and other large number.biological get downThe theorist of this theory is called Arnold Gessel (1880-1961), Gessel came up with the idea is that people are innate(p) with a set of genes and the genes carries unalike personalities, so the theorist is stating that behaviour does not to do with environs and what can of people you socialise with only if it is to do with the genes the person is natural with. This is quite different to the humanitarian cost where the military posture of set up is paramount. Gessel believes that as the baby is being form in the womb of the mother, for example, the heart being premiere to form. As the child develops the genes allows to flowering over the person. The theorist came up with the transmissible influences on behaviour idea. He thinks that genes found behaviour in legion(predicate) ways, some illnesses such as Huntingdons ailment is caused by the genes caused by the parents genes or the genes from the family. This inconvenience provide channelise the persons behaviour, for example, they testament cover in befittingly and they leave behind extend aggressive.