Saturday, August 31, 2019
Performance Management in a Human Resources Framework Introduction The purpose of this assignment to is to consider Performance Management in a Human Resources Framework. Firstly, the assignment will look at the concept of Ã¢â¬ËHuman Resources ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢ as a holistic strategic approach to managing the relationship between employer and employee that goes beyond the bounds of mere Ã¢â¬ËPersonnel ManagementÃ¢â¬â¢. Secondly, in light of the statement from Cooke and Armstrong (1990, cited in Rudman, 2002) that Ã¢â¬Å"Human resources strategies exist to ensure that the culture, values and structure of the organisation and the quality, motivation and commitment of its members contribute fully to the achievement of its objectivesÃ¢â¬ (p. 7), I will examine the extent to which my schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s performance appraisal and professional development policy and practice fit into a human resources framework. Lastly, these examples will be used to identify some of the potential and pitfalls of performance appraisal and professional development for an educational organisation. Human Resources Management Ã¢â¬â a holistic approach Human resource management (HRM) can be viewed as a holistic approach to managing the relationships in an organisation between the employer and employee. RudmanÃ¢â¬â¢s (2002) definition of HRM implies this holistic approach, in that HRM Ã¢â¬Å"covers all the concepts, strategies, policies and practices which organisations use to manage and develop the people who work for themÃ¢â¬ (p. 3). Several authors (Macky & Johnson 2000; McGraw, 1997; Rudman, 2002; Smith, 1998) acknowledge that HRM is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s most valued assets Ã¢â¬â the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the organisation. The terms Ã¢â¬Ëhuman resource managementÃ¢â¬â¢ (HRM), Ã¢â¬Ëhuman resourcesÃ¢â¬â¢ (HR) and even Ã¢â¬Ëstrategic human resource managementÃ¢â¬â¢ (SHRM) have largely replaced the term Ã¢â¬Å"personnel managementÃ¢â¬ as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organisations during the decades of the 1980s and 1990s (McGraw, 1997; Rudman, 2002). Ã¢â¬Å"People have been making personnel decisions since the earliest of timesÃ¢â¬ (Rudman, 2002, p. 2), however, from a historical perspective, the modern form of personnel management was founded from the time of the industrial revolution on two main beliefs: 1) the employerÃ¢â¬â¢s concern for the welfare of its workers, and 2) the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s need for control (Rudman, 2002). Over the last century personnel management evolved through the changing responses between these two beliefs and altered because of influences through scientific management, the industrial welfare and human relations movements , the development of trade unions and collective bargaining, and the growth of employment-related legislation (Rudman, 2002). Today, personnel management is associated with the functional aspects of people in organisations, whereas HRM is associated with the strategic aspects of people in organisations (Rudman, 2002). In practice the distinction between Personnel and Human Resource Management is often blurred because organisations need both function and strategic direction for managing and developing people (McGraw, 1997). Personnel management (PM) is therefore often used to describe the work related with administering policies and procedures for staff appointments, salaries, training and other employer/employee interactions.
Friday, August 30, 2019
This personalized Student Success Plan will help you reflect on past positive accomplishments you have made as a student and obstacles you have faced and overcome in previous terms. Once you identify your current status, you will analyze what you want to accomplish and how you will get there. You will also see that you are not alone on your educational journey. Your instructor is committed to helping you succeed in addition to the many resources provided by Everest. By completing the information below, you are taking accountability and responsibility for your own success! The Student Success Plan is an effective tool that you should complete for each of your courses at the start of every term. Click in each box and type your responses. Student Information: StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name Course and Section Number Program of Study Reflection on your past experiences as a student: Positive accomplishments in previous term(s) Obstacles faced in previous term(s) Ways you overcame the obstacles Analyze your strengths and motivations: Diagnostic questions: Responses to the questions: Your commitment and how you will apply it: What strengths or personal characteristics do you possess that will help you succeed as a college student? What is your biggest motivation for completing your college education? What is your ultimate goal as a college student? What is one goal you want to accomplish in this course? Analyze your current obstacles and how you plan to overcome them: Possible obstacles: Your answer and current status: Your commitment to overcome obstacles: Will college require you to alter your responsibilities and juggle other responsibilities in your life? What challenges do you face as a college student? What other obstacles do you think you may face this term? Analyze your needs as a student: Your needs: Your response: How do you want to see your instructor accomplish this? What type of assistance do you need from your instructor? What is the best method and day/time for your instructor to call you? Analyze, schedule, and plan your time: Your time: How many hours you will spend on each activity this term? How will you adjust your schedule this term to fit this in? How many hours per week are you going to spend doing things other than school? How many total hours per week are you going to be able to devote to your courses? Using the examples below, fill in the chart to plan out your weekly schedule throughout the entire term. Include all activities that require your time. This is a tool that you should complete and use on a weekly basis to effectively manage your time. Activity Time Needed to Complete Scheduled Day & Time to Complete Example: Work day 8 hours Monday Ã¢â¬â 9:00 a.m. Ã¢â¬â 6:00 p.m. Example: Review Learning Activities for SLS 1105 2 hours Monday Ã¢â¬â 8:00 p.m. Ã¢â¬â 10:00 p.m.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
There are several organizations for each professional for example: teachers, social workers, accountants and business owners just to name a few. Then there are sororities and fraternities which consist of all of these professionals in one melting pot. The professional organization which I will describe in the paper is the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). As an employee in a Child Care Facility being apart of this organization can help improve my career if I choose to become the director in a few months. The following paragraph describes the history of the organization and what it has done for the early childhood program. As a mother of 5 with 4 attending school in the public school system this organization is in the public eye and moving forward with efforts to improve the early childhood system and help teachers, parents and congress to understand how important our childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s education should be to us. I can join this organization and help to change laws that can have an impact for not only my children but also grandchildren, nieces, nephews and the children that attend my Childcare facility my eyes could be open to new information, meeting people from all aspects of life at the national meetings and even go to Washington DC to help influence them to increase the funding, or make changes to existing policies regarding early childhood education. NAEYCÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is to serve and act on behalf of the needs, rights and well-being of all young children with primary focus on the provision of educational and developmental services and resources. National Association for the Education of Young Children has become the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s premier organization for early childhood professionalsÃ¢â¬âsetting research-based standards and providing resources to improve early childhood program quality, enhance the professional development and working conditions of program staff, and to help families learn about and understand the need for high quality early childhood education. Through position statements, work with other organizations, and its national voluntary accreditation system, NAEYC has been the leader in promoting excellence in early childhood education for all young children from birth through age 8. NAEYCÃ¢â¬â¢s roots extend to the 1920s when professional researchers and educators began organizing nursery schools for young children. Concerned about the quality of the proliferating programs, Patty Smith Hill identified a multidisciplinary group of 25 individuals, among them Arnold Gesell, Lois Meek (Stolz), and Abigail Eliot, to consider the need for a new association. A public conference was held in Washington, DC in 1926. By 1929, the group was organized as the National Association for Nursery Education (NANE) and had published its first bookÃ¢â¬âMinimum Essentials for Nursery Education. In 1964, NANE was reorganized as the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Also that year, the federal Head Start program was launched, focusing public attention on preschool education. In the early 1980s, concern about the quality of early childhood services available to the burgeoning numbers of families seeking child care and preschool programs for their young children led NAEYC to begin planning a national voluntary accreditation system for early childhood programs. NAEYCÃ¢â¬â¢s work in developing position statements and setting standards for different aspects of early childhood education continued throughout the 1990s. The National Institute for Early Childhood Professional Development focuses attention on improving the quality of preparation and ongoing professional development for teachers of young children by providing a place to learn from researchers about new developments and evaluations of pedagogy, curriculum, assessment, and teacher education. By its 75th anniversary in 2001, the association was engaged in a project to reinvent its accreditation system (scheduled to be fully implemented in 2006). Funding provided by a variety of contributors has been instrumental to the success of this effort. In addition, a comprehensive restructuring of its affiliate groups (most of which successfully re-affiliated in 2004) had also been launched. Interest Forums were established as a membership benefit in 2001 to encourage communities of learning on issues related to the NAEYC mission. Funding provided by the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation enabled NAEYC to establish the Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families project to prevent child abuse and promote childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s healthy social development by helping teachers better communicate with families on difficult issues. The Association also adopted standards for professional preparation associate degree programs in early childhood education and launched plans to develop an accreditation system for these institutions. This effort has been generously supported by a number of contributors. The results of earlier efforts to build the AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s policy presence are clearly visible in 2004. Affiliates and members receive training, technical assistance and resources to help them improve the capacity of their efforts to promote good public policies and investments in affordable, high quality early childhood education programs. NAEYC is recognized as a leading voice in Congress and in state capitols on what is needed to help improve early childhood programs and services for all young children and their families, ranging from child care and Head Start, to early elementary grade reading programs and appropriate assessment. Early childhood educators look to NAEYC for journals, books, and other resources that combine a solid research base and information and features that make them highly accessible and useful for practitioners, teacher educators, and policy makers. NAEYC Conferences continue to be the meetings that just canÃ¢â¬â¢t be missed, serving a critical convening function for the early childhood profession and providing a valuable professional development opportunity. Approaching its 80th anniversary, NAEYC is proud of its traditions, but also looks to the future. The Association is committed to becoming an ever more high performing inclusive organization that invites all individuals, families, communities and organizations to work together to improve the lives of all young children. They offer an Associate Degree Accreditation Program too many Universities that have programs in Early Childhood to make sure they are preparing their students for their career. They also offer Early Childhood professionals resources to improve their practice through training and professional development. After reading all the above information we should all be apart of this type of organization that cares greatly for the education system that our child (ren) participate in on a daily basis.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Building a Balanced Score Card - Term Paper Example unt the perspectives of operation, namely financial perspective, customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s internal perspective, and the learning perspective of employees of the company. The Balance scorecard model can be explained from the diagram below. The Balance scorecard of South-West Airlines measures the strategic performance of the company in terms of metrics. Metrics are nothing but means of measurement of actual values of performance against the set target to fulfill the objectives of South-West Airlines. The financial perspective of South-West Airlines takes into account the growth of revenue, the operating profit, financial position of short-term and long-term solvency. The customerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective takes into account the increase of customers, transaction size with the customers and the degree of customer satisfaction. Talking about the internal perspective of South-West Airlines, the main objectives are product improvement, maintenance of market size, ratio of equipments to new equipments, innovation in service, quality of operations and turn-around time. The learning and growth perspective takes into account the training of employees of South-West Airlines, the turnover of its employees, and the compensation for their employees. The objective set under the four perspectives for South-West Airlines in its Balanced scorecard model depends on the mission and vision of South-West Airlines. Mission of South-West Airlines states that the company is dedicated to provide customer sa tisfaction with its high quality of operational efficiency and service quality that would provide a sense of warmth, pride and friendliness in the rights spirits of the company. The goal of the South-West Airlines is aligned with its vision of being the largest player in low-cost market segment. The company plans to achieve this with high utilization of its aircraft and increasing the frequency of flights in the short-interval routes connecting secondary cities and destinations.
Health and Safety Executive - Assignment Example The passers-by who use the main road are also in danger. The cattle and sheep may be potentially exposed to serious peril if the chamber suddenly explodes. (c.) Evaluation of Risks: Due to the impending peril of a potential explosion of the chamber brought about by the cracks, it is best that immediate remedy shall be effected swiftly. The toxic pollutants found in the sewer system can cause a critical threat to public health. In the event that it explodes, the water system shall be affected which can harm the community that uses the sewer system. (d.) Implementation: A simple solution to fix the cracks by applying a sealant to the cracked edges is just a temporary relief. There is a need to upgrade the sewer system management plan. In order to prevent sewer overflows, it suggested that some guideline should be followed: 5. Verify the wastewater collection system has adequate capacity to convey sewage during peak flows". Details on how to achieve a sewer system management plan can be found on this website http://www.ci.san-Luis-obispo.ca.us/utilities/download/ssmpgoal.pdf. (e.) Review of Assessment : The grave problem must be acted upon immediately. There is no need to wait for the operation to take place in June. The sewer system issue must be resolved in the soonest possible time as many people shall be exposed to the danger of spreading diseases and toxic pollutants in the water system which can be caused by a broken subterranean chamber of the sewer system. (a.) Hazards: The maintenance and upkeep of growing trees, grasses and hedgerows along highway and in the vicinity of a junior school in the suburbs of a small town has become a refuge of drug traders living in the area. The possible menace that the drug dealers can cause to the innocent children, the people who reside in the community, and the motorists who traverse the highway, should be prevented. (b.) Who may be harmed: The safety and well-being of the students attending the junior school and the entire school community are in jeopardy for they may encounter misfortune with the members of the drug syndicate.Ã Ã
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Why South African Constitution is better than the United State's constitution - Essay Example The constitution also provides for the bills of right, how it enshrines bills of right is one of the most important issues that are being looked for in the constitution to demonstrate its efficacy. One can make a conclusion whether the constitution is meant to suppress its citizen or for their prosperity. How it recognizes the freedom and the rights of the citizen for economic growth is also a factor to consider in assessing the accommodative nature of the constitution.1 Difference in the US and SA Constitution Mark Kende in his writing has compared the constitution of the US and that of South Africa with assertion that the South African constitution in this regard remains detailed and inclusive than that of the US. Kende posits that the US constitution provides more for the negative values as compared with the South African constitution, this he summarizes in his theory that liberty should presume subsistence.2 Kende also urges that the human right experts have caste the fundamental human rights in to three generations; the political and civil rights, socio-economic rights, and green right. In this reference of human rights classification, Cass Sustein also resonates with Kende that in the consideration of the three classifications, the South African constitution remains admirable compared with that of the US.3
Monday, August 26, 2019
The Concept of Rights - Essay Example By "property" he means "life, liberty, and estate". The philosopher begins by asserting that each individual, at a minimum, "owns" himself, because he is free and equal in the state of nature. In the Second Treatise, Locke espoused the idea of government by consent (representative government). Since there is no natural hierarchy among human beings, any subordination of one to another must be conventional. This convent is called the social contract. In this way, Locke argues that a full economic system could, in principle, exist within the state of nature. Property could therefore predate the existence of government, and thus society can be dedicated to the protection of property. When one joins civil society, however, one joins one's property to it to be regulated by the community. As a practical matter, in every society, a part must rule the whole. As the majority is composed of more wills and is stronger than the minority, the will of society must be determined by the majority. This makes liberal democracy a moral imperative. At a minimum, the majority must support the regime in power; in practice, this support can be demonstrated only by including something like a Parl iament in the government. It must be said that the people rule themselves. The rule of law - the idea that the power of the state may be exercised only pursuant to a general rule crafted by the legislature - is the only legitimate form of government. However, according to the philosopher, if the state overstepped its limits and began to exercise arbitrary power, it forfeited its 'side' of the contract and thus, the contract being void, the citizens not only have the right to overthrow the state, but are indeed morally compelled to revolt and replace the state (Uzgalis). "The Declaration of Independence" (1776). The Preamble of the Declaration is influenced by Enlightenment philosophy, including the concept of natural law. Ideas and even some of the phrasing were taken directly from the writings of John Locke, particularly his Second Treatise. This was done so, because, according to Jefferson, the purpose of the Declaration was not to find out new philosophical principles or arguments, but to convince everyone that leaders of the colonies were right in their revolutionary actions. The preamble is presented as a logical demonstration, with one proposition leading to another proposition. From the first proposition (that all men are created equal), a chain of logic is produced that leads to the right and responsibility of revolution when a government becomes destructive of the people's rights (Locke's idea): "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness". Again, the Locke's terminology: "That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the consent of the governed". Then, according to the text of the Declaration, "whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is in the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute a new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such Form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness"
Sunday, August 25, 2019
How to implement the five disciplines - Essay Example Personal mastery is the development of a personal vision to make it a reality. Seeing things objectively and realizing the truth and the reality are important aspects in personal mastery as it develops creative tension that boosts an individual towards his vision. Personal mastery is developing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own vision for personal growth and development and for further development of his environment. Mental models are the internal assumptions, generalizations and pictures of the world that influences oneÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding and actions. The importance of realizing these deeply ingrained assumptions and beliefs is to bring these beliefs and principles into the surface and scrutinize them. This way the individual will understand better their own beliefs and how to balance their beliefs and the beliefs of others. Shared vision is understanding that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal vision can, in some way, be connected to anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s vision. With the development and understanding of a collective thinking, shared vision becomes a commitment on a shared belief rather than compliance in a vision or mission of a group or organization. Team learning is based on group interaction and group communication. This is the capability of group members to understand and be open to one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s personal visions. Team learning also establishes the importance of dialogue and discussion, through which the gateways of communication and understanding each other and the way to a collective thinking and shared vision can be accomplished. Systems thinking is based on understanding the interrelationships of the structures and patterns that recur. It sees processes rather than a linear cause-effect snapshot of what is happening. It looks at the depth of the situation or scenario based on a conceptual framework that focuses on the cycles and archetypes. Systems thinking is what ties up all
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Communication plan - Essay Example that communication with parents is essential if a student is to succeed and, as a new teacher, I feel that I need the suggestions and support of parents and, thus, need a good communications method with studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ parents. Firstly, I plan to keep an email list that shall be updated with email addresses of my studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ parents. The parents will be emailed weekly concerning the covered lessons, as well as those to be covered, work that their children may be missing that is required for grading, upcoming tests, and assignments as I feel that this is essential in the education system. I also feel that this will afford the parents an opportunity to give feedback and students with regards to various issues through email. Studies have reported that students, parents, and teachers are in support of this communication plan (Petrina 17). I also plan to create a class website that parents and students can visit, as well as learn more concerning our class and make suggestions and responses. A class website is useful when communicating with the school community since the community will be able to learn about the class and understand how my students are going about their education. The website will be connected to the school website, which will, however, be dependent on the manner that the school website manages its website. Since there could be parents that are not comfortable with website connections and using email, important events and issues should be explained through the use paper communication. The school could also help by giving training sessions to the parents in order to familiarize them recent technology within the community and the school (Cennamo 238). Personally, as a new teacher, communication with other administrators and teachers will be beneficial in seeking to help in class management and solving upcoming problems. Being part of the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s network could aid in peering with the other teachers in reflection and collaboration, in practice development,
Friday, August 23, 2019
World Cinema - Essay Example The Iranian cinema is an example of how the social and cultural perspectives and challenges are represented in the cinema. Questions of politics and religion in Iranian cinema canÃ¢â¬â¢t be separate from any of the films that are produced in the region. These are intertwined with the representation of culture, societyÃ¢â¬â¢s identity and the belief systems that are continuously challenged within the region. Each era has specific approaches to religion and politics with the cinema, all which are a reflection of society at the time. Silent Era The first era of cinema that noted the religious and political views in Iranian cinema was with the silent era. The silent era was attributed to the years of 1900 - 1930 with a combination of documentaries and fictional settings that were used. The footage that was used for these specific films consisted of footage news, events and spectacles that were related specifically to royalty. These different clips were combined together to show histo rical accounts of what were occurring during a specific time and how this linked to the identity that was a part of the Iranian culture. The concept was combined with the ability to shoot rituals, religious events and to show the diversity of culture in the area, such as with investigations of Christianity and by looking at ethic and religious minorities. This approach was able to provide insight into the time frame while allowing a new type of history and sense of identity to take place through the political and religious concepts (Smith, 2006). Sound Era The foundation of film in the silent era led to new technical innovations that were approached in the sound era. However, this point also focused on the same ideals of religion and politics, specifically because it was a representation of the identity of those that were spectators to the film. The silent era had established this with the different approaches which were taken to showing the non Ã¢â¬â fiction elements of the film . From the 1930s and until the 1970s, there was a focus on providing insight into the different topics which were associated with the film. The main ideology was to present the socially engaged film, specifically which was highlighted in the 1960s. This was based on showing the realities of the Iranian culture, such as through minority groups and those which were suffering because of the current political regime and religious laws. The ideas were combined with the religious morality that was based on the Islamic practices, specifically with the belief that bringing the information to the public would also lead to a day of judgment for those who had turned away from the social issues which were at hand (Ridgeon, 2003). The concept of the Ã¢â¬Å"day of judgmentÃ¢â¬ and the approach to religion and politics from this perspective led to the growing ideology of the third world of cinema as well as the Muslim ideologies that were engrained in the culture. The themes which were used in each of the films helped to bring light to the current issues which had been raised as well as created a sense of justice that was a part of the religion and politics. However, this was combined with the deeply embedded belief systems in the culture. The concept of religion, belief in the Quran and the continuous teachings were known and praised throughout society. The Iranian culture was expected to live under these religious beliefs, which is what created the differences and changes that were a part of society. The concept of building a Muslim ideology from the movies, while showing the concept of justice, then became intertwined with the films that were a part of the sound era (Ahmad, 2010). Modern Era The new wave, or modern era of cinema, began in the 1960s and led into 1978 with new challenges that were
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Using SEI Strategies in a SIOP Essay Instruction will begin by discussing the differences between fictional and non-fictional books; Students will read the non-fiction book Ã¢â¬Å"What If You Had Animal TeethÃ¢â¬ by Sandra Markle. This book is filled with fun and interesting facts on animalÃ¢â¬â¢s different teeth. The book will be read in its entirety engaging students and creating interest. Learning objectives will be introduced using chart paper. 1. I can gather important information related to my topic. 2. I can teach my partner how to find facts related to the chosen topic. 3. I can write my own informative book Teacher will display a premade chart that describes what nonfiction is. Read the definition aloud as students track with their eyes. Create a new chart and list nonfiction characteristics that can be found in a book and discuss their purpose. Look through nonfiction books to see specific examples of the nonfiction characteristics. Inform students that we will now go back and review the book Ã¢â¬Å"What If You Had Animal TeethÃ¢â¬ and we will consider what facts we are given. Go to the first page, read the sentence and ask studentsÃ to do a think/pair/share. Think: What facts are given? Discuss with your group. Prompt students to share out with the whole class. Continue with each page. Tell students that they get to practice finding more facts by reading other nonfiction animal books. Give students a list of nonfiction books to choose from. Generate a discussion of what nonfiction means. Guide student discussion to the idea that we will research facts and create our own nonfiction booklet to help readers understand important information of our chosen topic. Give students the option of choosing 1 out of 4 animals to research and write about. Point out how when writing nonfiction material, you can use headings to help break up important information that you want readers to understand about the topic. Using ELMO (document camera), display worksheet Ã¢â¬Å"The Working Tools of InsectsÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"We are going to look at the top of page. Does anyone remember what we call this?Ã¢â¬ Check for student understanding. Ã¢â¬Å"It is the heading.Ã¢â¬ Read aloud the heading found at the top of the page while students track with their eyes. Ask students to consider what the material is going to be based on the heading. Ã¢â¬Å"What do you think this story is going to be about based on what the heading is? I know that Insects donÃ¢â¬â¢t use tools like hammers or screwdrivers, so what else can tools mean?Ã¢â¬ Illicit responses such as Ã¢â¬Å"their antenna, their stingers, etc.Ã¢â¬ Relay to students that animals have tools too. Ã¢â¬Å"Birds can use their beaks to gather food. Porcupines can use their quills to protect them against predators.Ã¢â¬ Tell students that they will now have the opportunity to create their own fact booklet. Show students a premade example of the Ã¢â¬Å"fact bookletÃ¢â¬ that they will be creating. Explain to students what the purpose of nonfiction writing is. Ã¢â¬Å"Nonfiction writing is used to teach people information about something. When writing nonfiction we need to decide on what the most important information is that we should include in the writing.Ã¢â¬ Tell students that before writing nonfiction, they should ask themselves Ã¢â¬Å"What information will help the reader to understand the topic?Ã¢â¬ Ask students to brainstorm and share with their group by reviewing the reading materials of the chosen topic to find important information that they want to include. Show the students an example of how their first page in their fact booklet might look like. Ã¢â¬Å"I will choose to write facts about dogs. What important informationÃ about dogs do I want my readers to know? I want my readers to know about the physical features of dogs for those readers who might not be familiar with them.Ã¢â¬ Write down a fact on the first page. Tell students that it is also important to have illustrations to help readers connect the pictures to the words, and understand what they are reading. Draw a picture above the facts on the first page. Students will now create their own fact booklet. Pass out construction paper. Have students fold paper in half, creating 12 pages altogether. Have them staple the pages to create a book. On the first page, have students write down their information on the bottom half of the page. On the top half of the page, have students draw a picture illustrating the facts that they have written. Have students include headings for each new fact that they are including. Reflection: Gather students in whole group to debrief. Ask students to explain what nonfiction means. Ask them to explain the difference between fiction and nonfiction. (Guide students to understand that nonfiction is used to give readers an understanding of a topic). Call on several students to share one fact that they have created in their fact booklet. This will give the teacher a good idea of how well students understand nonfiction. The influx of English Language Learners in U.S. educational school systems is on the rise. With this increase, our educators are feeling the pressure of finding a proper balance to support our linguistically diverse students through language and content instruction, allowing them to integrate within school and their community with ease. Educators can meet the immense and distinct needs of all students by integrating different educational instruction methods in their lesson planning. This paper will discuss five important components that should be included in educational instructional strategies for ELL learners and classrooms: comprehensible input, ongoing, specific, and immediate feedback, grouping structures and techniques, building background and vocabulary development, and student engagement. The SIOP lesson plan that can be found above is a detailed summary of a conceivable fourth grade lesson that can be directed in an ELL comprehensive classroom. This lesson encompasses instructional strategies used toÃ accommodate ELLs throughout class instruction. The Arizona State Standards used to support the components of the SIOP model can also be recognized in this lesson. Addressed in the SIOP lesson is the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to show awareness and understanding of non-fictional works, their ability to recognize the relationship between fiction and non-fiction, and their ability to recognize differences in the structure and components of non-fiction work by clarifying what nonfiction works are, as well as them capably using specific actions, emotions, or conditions that are basic to specific content (Center for Applied Linguistics, 2013). This lesson includes different instructional practices used with the students including partnering up and whole group discussion. These strategies were utilized to gain a clear and confident understanding of non-fictional structures of writing. The goal of the SIOP lesson plan is to engage students in collaboration with each other so that they can identify why nonfiction is an important part of reading and writing. While using the think/pair/share method, learners will acquire the ability to recognize nonfiction writing and compare it to fictional works. Both language and content objectives have been aligned with state standards, influencing the lesson plan. The language objectives used in this lesson include collaboration with partners and as a class, recognize significant information to a topic, create a structured informational book, and use nonfictional structures of writing. The content objectives include effective collaboration, convey clear ideas and information through informative writing, using appropriate writing format, develop work with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic, and use appropriate words that demonstrate an understanding of the lesson in its entirety. The instructional strategies that were used in this lesson could be applied to all learners. Learners were given the chance to hold whole group discussion, think/pair/share, have paired peer discussion, and make comparisons. ELLs were able to build background by the inclusion of meaningful activities, collaboration, tactics, repetition, and response used in this lesson. This lesson also provided a scaffolding effect which can endorse high levels of success for second language acquisition. It is critical to an EllÃ¢â¬â¢s growth and development that comprehensible input be integrated within each lesson. Comprehensible input can be described as the ability for students toÃ understand what is being said and presented to them (Campbell Mailman, 2013). With the use of oral demonstration and context or visual cues being incorporated into numerous methods in instructional teachings, comprehensible input can be attained. It is also important for educators to challenge their students by requesting that they explain what is expected of them. These practices can help heighten a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s familiarity and understanding of English. Another important element used in ELL instruction and which can be applied to all learners is feedback. Feedback is given to students to provide them with an awareness of their strengths and what improvements are needed to improve their performance. An educator can deliver feedback orally or through non-verbal communication. It is important to note that feedback is not a one-way communication, but rather an interaction between an educator and learner (McKimm). An attentive teacher recognizes the importance in instantaneous, detailed, and continuous feedback to help build studentÃ¢â¬â¢s assurance in their own capabilities. This self-confidence can help students extend it to their communicative skills, evaluate their achievements and continue to improve on their work. Educators must ensure that all feedback is remedial, appropriate and applies to the benchmarks given. Educators must also remember that is it not important in the amount of mistakes a student makes. The true value is in the amount of instructional information that a student learns and understands. Grouping structures and methods are also used by educators to endorse collaboration and learning. By grouping students who have strong, developed English language skills with students whose English language skills are still emerging, students have had higher success rates while learning the English language (Albertazzi, Azofeifa, Serrani, 2013). Integrating ELL and non-ELL students gives all students the opportunity to develop and continue to build vocabulary, as well as expand their skills in understanding, listening and speaking. Collaborating with one another can be an equally powerful teaching strategy as any other method of teaching done by educators. Building background and vocabulary development is another instructional strategy used in ELL classrooms to help develop innovative approaches that familiarize ELLs to new language(Campbell Mailman, 2013). This strategy also reinforces language meanings, a crucial step to English language development. By making use of key ideas that emphasize reading,Ã writing, and vocabulary as well as articulation and word enunciation strategies, teachers can support ELLs in developing their vocabulary so that they learn English proficiently. Lastly, student engagement is an equally important task in ELL instruction. Keeping students active and engaged while teaching a subject that is complex can be difficult. By using various strategies such as acknowledging students interests, providing additional materials, and requesting students to bring in personal motivators to learning English, such as letters from pen pals or applications for sports sign ups, teachers can help keep students actively engaged and participating in educational instruction. Acquiring a second language can be a challenging task for ELL students. Educators are responsible for considering the dynamics of English language acquisition and must take strategic steps in engaging and instructing ELL students. If educators implemented each of the components mentioned throughout this paper by integrating them into their teaching, all students will have the opportunity to receive exceptional learning experiences. References Albertazzi, S., Azofeifa, M., Serrani, G. (2013) Second Language Acquisition. Retrieved on November 14, 2013 from http://www.slideshare.net/milaazofeifa/krashens-theory-on-second-language-acquisition Campbell, A. Mailman, L. (2013). Theories of Language Development. Retrieved on November 15, 2013 from http://languagedevelopment.tripod.com/id15.html The Arizona K-12 Academic Standards. English Language Learners. (n.d.). The Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved November 14, 2013 from http://www.azed.gov/english-language-learners/elps/forms/ CAL SIOP. (2013). What is the SIOP Model. Center for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved on November 15, 2013 from http://www.cal.org/siop/about/index.html McKimm, J. (n.d.). What is Feedback. Retrieved from http://www.faculty.londondeanery.ac.uk/e-learning/feedback/what-is-feedback
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Edgar Allan Poe Essay A famous author who initiated the start of detective stories and could spook his readers out with his tales of horror was born in January 19,1809. He was a wonderful short story writer and a poet. One of his masterpieces that he is well known for is known as Ã¢â¬Å"The Raven.Ã¢â¬ IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure by now youÃ¢â¬â¢ve guessed that IÃ¢â¬â¢m speaking of the Ã¢â¬Å"Father of the Detective storiesÃ¢â¬ known as Edgar Allan Poe. PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s work reflected his own bitter and mysterious life. In most of his writing there is a blur between what is real and what if fiction because many of his narrators are on some sort of drugs. Edgar was a romantic writer, and his style was gothic. Edgar Allan Poe was a romantic in his writing. He was a part of the American renaissance movement and it is apparent he along with many other American writers rejected the British form of writing. He seemed to embrace that writing should express emotions. It shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t just follow a certain rubric of rules but effuse from the heart. The tell-tale signs of a romantic writer are strong idealism and rejection of classicism. These characteristics are vividly found in his work known as Ã¢â¬Å"LigeiaÃ¢â¬ . In this story the narrator is an opium addict who marries a woman named Ligeia. He finds her to be very intriguing. He sees her as a beautiful woman with a mysterious personality. Unfortunately, she dies and he ends up marrying a stereotypical woman named Rowena. She is the complete opposite of Ligea in that she is exactly the way all the women of his era are supposed to be like. At the end of the story this woman also dies but then Ligea returns to the author through RowenaÃ¢â¬â¢s dead body. The romantic writer uses many examples to illustrate his preference for Romanticism over British literature and Classicism. The preference of the author for his first wife is an example of strong idealism and rejection of classicism. For instance, the writer describes his wife as an extraordinary beingÃ¢â¬ ¦almost inhuman: Ã¢â¬Å"She came and departed as a shadow.Ã¢â¬ Then he goes on to talk about her eyes and mentions that they are much bigger than normal eyes should be. He has a soft spot for her unique features and admires her intelligence. It is because she is different from the norm of women, he finds her attractive. She is a symbol of rebellion to the rules of classicism and her characteristics paint the art of romanticism. He then contrasts her Ã¢â¬Å"Singular yet placid cast of beautyÃ¢â¬ with the Ã¢â¬Å"fair-hairedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"blue-eyedÃ¢â¬ classical beauty of Rowena. It is apparent he prefers his first wife over the latter one because he repeatedly compares the two but compliments the first one. Poe then goes on to demonstrate strong idealism in his work. Idealism was basically a term used to define the optimistic nature of American writers in the good nature of mankind. In this story the fact that the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s first wife comes back to life through the body of his second wife is a symbol of optimism. The author had described his wife as a woman who had wisdom of divine matters. He believed in her wisdom so much that he was sure she had used it to resurrect herself. It is also useful to know that the author was an opium addict. His point of view may have been distorted with hallucinations but the opium usage itself is an example of strong idealism. It is through this usage he is able to find his favorite wife come back to life simply because he willed for her to return to him. Her return could even be literal after she claims that, Ã¢â¬Å"Man doth not yield him to the angels, nor unto death utterly, save only through the weakness of his feeble willÃ¢â¬ (Lombardi). So maybe she was really there and if she was then this is a fine example of idealism. Considering, idealism is the hope of having a very unlikely event occur because of someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s optimism. One more example of idealism in Ligeia is no significance of time or space. The American writers wanted to be very distinct from the old literature and wanted to cut off from them. As a result, they made time and space irrelevant to their work as a rebellion to rules. This explains why readers are never told how or when the author met his first wife or at what time she was reincarnated. For example, Poe says Ã¢â¬Å"I cannot, for my soul, remember how, when, or even precisely where, I first became acquainted with the lady Ligeia. (Deter) In addition, the author is so caught up the description of Ligeia he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember the beginning of his relationship with her or what the ending to her is. She seems to consume him to the point that time and space donÃ¢â¬â¢t matter to him. Does she even have an ending? Considering she comes back to life as if manipulating time is one of her skills. All of these details just add to how much of a romantic writer Edgar Allan Poe really is. Poe used a very gothic style of writing. His work was usually dramatic, suspenseful and melodic. Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ is a perfect example of these writing techniques. For instance, in Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ the setting of the story is in his apartment in a lonely December night. The narrator is missing his lover, Lenore, who died. He is trying to distract himself by delving into the realms of his books but is sadly failing in all his attempts. Then a Raven appears at his window and knows of one word, Ã¢â¬Å"Nevermore.Ã¢â¬ He asks the Raven if he would see his lover again, but it replies Ã¢â¬Å"Nevermore.Ã¢â¬ The Raven angers the author and he tells it to leave to which the Raven gives the same answer, Ã¢â¬Å"NevermoreÃ¢â¬ . This poem is very meaningful and pretty much defines the themes and styles that Edgar loved to promote in his work. One thing to be noted when reading this poem aloud is that repeating Nevermore aloud after each stanza is a purposeful tactic. EdgarÃ¢â¬â¢s melodic instincts shine through this technique. He does this to emphasize the unity of effect and so that each stanza reflects the meaning of the poem as a whole. In addition, the Ã¢â¬Å"OÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢s in Ã¢â¬Å"LenoreÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"NevermoreÃ¢â¬ are too emphasized so that the unity of effect occurs once more. Moreover, this woman has left him and she is no more so the two words are parallels to the emotions of the author at the moment. They signify his loneliness. EdgarÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry is always well thought-out and he is always on a mission to have relatable but dramatic themes that will suck his readers in. In this poem he combines the theme of beauty with death. The beauty is represented by the memory of his beloved lover but who has met the ugly reality of death. He asks the Raven whether he will meet her in heaven but is hit by the cruel answer Ã¢â¬Å"NevermoreÃ¢â¬ . This blatantly ugly reality is what makes his poem have an even more gothic and depressing touch.
Provide Leadership Across The Organization Management Essay MacVille, as an import/ export company that sells and maintains espresso coffee machines, has plan to establish a new business center in Sydney to supplement the one already operating from Brisbane. This new venture was aligned with the overall objective and mission of the organization which was to provide espresso coffee machines that meet the efficiency, reliability and sustainability needs of the cafÃ ©/ restaurant clients. The establishment of the new business center would move the bulk of the organizations import/ export base to Sydney which was in line with the overall direction for the organization growth in both profits and market share. As a new venture, the MacVille has four main expected outcome which are first to help secure the three year objective of being the number one volume importer in the market for imported espresso coffee machines. Then, the objective is to achieving the strategic objective of profit margin growth of 5% in the next three year. Moreover, the organization expects to reduce the carbon footprint by 10% within the next three years. In order to achieve the objective of the organization, the self-directed teams need to be created. Therefore, the incorporate the key value of cultivating leadership in the organization is needed. MacVille aims to empower its employees with knowledge and resources to get results, grow its business and to lend the markets. The role for this new venture would carry the title General Manager which would be expected to provide creative leadership for the administration, coordination and management of the new venture in a manner that is consistent with the strategic direction of the organization. There are three positions for the general manager which are account manager, warehouse manager and maintenance manager. Interpersonal and leadership styles According to the Interpersonal style that could be applied to this setting is open, flexible, positive, and responsible which will lead to the good working environment. Otherwise, my own Interpersonal style is Helpful, Patient, Open, and Supportive which also can apply in to this setting too. In this case, the organization needs to hire new managers who will achieving the objective of the organization, so the responsible and patient are the main Interpersonal style that all the employee must have. The leadership style that could be applied to this setting is the democratic leadership style which is the leader shares with the group members, policies decision making, planning and execution of activities. Subordinates are encouraged to express their ideas and suggestions in decision making. The leader helps to develop a feeling of responsibility on the part of every member of the group gives constructive criticisms and praises the members when the group achieves a set objective. This ty pe of leader ship style will lead to high productivity and quality of work, high morale, sense of group feeling and group members feel secured and satisfied to belong. Otherwise, my own leadership style is Laizer-faire leadership style, in this style the leader is the one who believes that the group members can get on without him. The leader gives minimum guidance, and remains in the background. The result of this style of leadership is low morale and productivity, too much freedom which cause laxity, lack incentives to work. Skills and knowledge In order to manage the situation effectively, the manager and employee need to have three skills which are technical skill, Human skill, and Conceptual skill. For the Technical skill, the manager and employee should be proficient at specific tasks. This in turn helps to provide credibility or knowledge to persuade people to certain things. For Human skill, the staff has to know how to work with people. The last skill is the conceptual skill which the staff can see the organization as a whole. Moreover, the staff still need a strategy thinking skill in order to planning ahead and predicting what was going to happened. In addition, the Flexible/adaptable to change skill is the most important for the staff in the situation that the organization need to take a new venture. Compare to my skill, my own skill is also Technical skill, Human skill and Flexible/ adaptable to change skill which is similar to the case study. Professional development In order to improve the skill, the professional development opportunity and the networking opportunities timeline is need to be developed. People management For the people management, the management training courses, leadership training courses, and HR fundamentals training courses has been assists the organization by improve the skill knowledge as well as the interpersonal and leadership of both manager and employee which is the key role to achieve the objective of the organization. Moreover, the training course also helps the manager and employee to gain more experiences. General outcome Management training courses provide the management skill, supervision skills as well as management experience Leadership training courses provide leadership skill and supervision skill HR fundamentals training courses provide the HR management experience, recruitment and selection for managers experiences General management The project management training courses, and the contract law (for managers) training course has been assists the organization by improve the skill, knowledge as well as the interpersonal and leadership of both manager and employee. Moreover, the training course also helps the manager and employee to gain more experiences. General outcome Project management training courses provide project management experience contract law (for manager)training courses provide contract management experience Strategy The strategic business planning training course, innovative management training courses, sustainable business training courses, risk management training courses, information management training courses has been assists the organization by improve the skill, knowledge for both manager and employee. Moreover, the training course also helps the manager and employee to gain more experiences. For the strategic skill training course will assists the organization to provide the employee who have a knowledge and experience on the business plan and management to support the organization growth. General outcome strategic business planning training course provide developing and implementing strategy experience innovative management training courses provide innovative management experience and knowledge sustainable business training courses provide knowledge on the sustainable business risk management training courses provide knowledge on the risk management information management training courses provide information management experience and knowledge Sales and customer service The sales training courses, clients and customer service training courses, customer complaint training courses, and market training courses has been assists the organization by improve the skill, knowledge for both manager and employee. Moreover, the training course also helps the manager and employee to gain more experiences. The sale and customer service training course will assist the organization by training more sale in order to increase the profit and market share. General outcome Sales training courses provide the sale experience and sales team management experience Clients and customer service training courses- provide clients and customer service experience Customer complaint training courses provide customer complaint experience Market training courses provide marketing experience both individual and team-based Finance The finance management training courses, and accounting basics training courses has been assists the organization by improve the skill, knowledge for both manager and employee. Moreover, the training course also helps the manager and employee to gain more experiences. In this case, the finance management courses will help the company to improve the financial management. Moreover, the accounting training course will help the industry to provide the better budget plan for the business improvement. General outcome Finance management training courses provide the knowledge on financial, financial management experience Accounting basics training courses provide the basic knowledge on the accounting, account management experience, budget development experience, business case development experience Professional and Networking opportunity timeline All the opportunities and time required on this plan is based on the analyzed and evaluated staff profile. Project Cost ($) Time required (Month) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 People management Management training courses $150000 2 Leadership training courses $150000 2 HR fundamentals training courses $150000 5 General management Project management training courses $150000 5 Contract law (for manager) training courses $150000 5 Strategy Strategic business planning training courses $150000 4 Innovative management training courses $150000 3 Sustainable business training courses $150000 4 Risk management training courses $150000 4 Information management training courses $150000 5 Sales and customer service Sales training courses $150000 1 Client relationship Customer service training courses $150000 2 Customer complaints training courses $150000 3 Market training courses $150000 3 Finance Finance management training courses $150000 5 Accounting basics training courses $150000 5
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The Welfare State and Moral Irresponsibility Ã President Bush has declared the fourth week of April to be National Volunteer Week. This is a follow-up to his call for all Americans to do two years of community service during their lifetimes, and his creation of the new federal USA Freedom program to pay volunteers and to encourage service. But should we all really rush out to man the ladles at the nearest soup kitchen? Is such service really good for America? Ã Let's start by clarifying some moral confusion. The measure of our moral worth is not how much we give to others but rather to what extent we hold our own lives as our highest value and take the responsibility for our lives. That standard requires us to set goals that will contribute most to our survival and well being, and to create the means to attain those goals. It requires honesty, integrity, self-discipline, and fortitude in the face of self-destructive indulgences that distract us from our long-term happiness. Ã If more people lived by this standard, there would be little need for volunteers to help others. Each of us would earn our own way, support our own families, take pleasure from our own friends, and take care of our own needs. We owe our fellow citizens respect for their rights and freedom. We do not owe them a living. Ã Of course, there are good self-interested reasons for helping others in such a society. In the case of the September 11th terrorist attacks that murdered 3000 innocent people, we as individuals took it upon ourselves to make right an injustice, generously contributing a billion dollars to help the victims with whom we rightly sympathized. It's also in our self-interest to live in a society with other independent, productive, and creative citizens, so we can exchange material goods and ideas with one another, share challenges and experiences, rejoice in the achievement of others, and have our own achievements recognized. To that end we as individuals might help a poor but worthy student pay for college, or we might help others who suffer through unforeseen emergencies or circumstances, such as a serious illness. We might even help those who suffer through some fault of their own, for example, through the use of drugs or other irresponsible choices, if we judge that those individuals a re trying to mend their ways.
Monday, August 19, 2019
There is one Haitian proverb that has never lost its potency, despite the atmosphere of economic adversity, numerous civil wars, and political unrest: Ã ¡Ã °Piti, piti, wazo fe nich li.Ã ¡Ã ± Literally, the phrase means, Ã ¡Ã °Little by little, the bird builds its nestÃ ¡Ã ±; figuratively, it represents building oneÃ ¡Ã ¯s way, Ã ¡Ã °little by little, Ã ¡Ã ± toward oneÃ ¡Ã ¯s goals in life. To further understand the sayingÃ ¡Ã ¯s significance, we should first consider the nature of birds. From tailorbirds that suture leaves together to some hummingbirds and pee wee wrens that use lichen and spider webs to build their nests, we can see the resourcefulness birds demonstrate in obtaining nest-building materials. My life has been a similar process of building a metaphorical nest -- acquiring such qualities as compassion, dedication, and leadership through a variety of experiences to prepare for a successful career as a physician. As a bird builds through changing seasons, I too have prepared for the study of medicine through variously themed Ã ¡Ã °seasonsÃ ¡Ã ± in my life. During high school, for example, I focused my activities on serving the various communities of which I am a part. After joining Mt. Olivet SDA Church, I became involved with the community of Williamsville, New York -- participating in an anti-drug rally and health fair, leading local public speaking events, singing in church choirs at nursing homes, and visiting hospitalized church members. I was also a mentor and counselor for underprivileged children...
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Best Man Speech - Assassination of the Groom's Character Good afternoon Ladies and Gentlemen. I am going to keep this speech fairly short because of my throat; the bride said that if I made fun of the groom too much she would cut it. Firstly, on behalf of the bridesmaids, I would like to thank the groom for those kind words and gifts. As I'm sure you will all agree, they all look absolutely beautiful and have carried out their role splendidly, so I think a round of applause for the bridesmaids is definitely in order. Just before I start the groom's character assassination, the bride was telling me earlier in the day that her pharmacy was broken into last week. The thief apparently stole ten boxes of condoms and ten boxes of viagra. The police are now looking for a hardened criminal. Next day a woman walks into the shop and asks her for some bottom deodorant, puzzled she replies, "I'm sorry we don't sell such a thing, "I beg your pardon" says the woman. Ã¢â¬Å"I buy it from here all the time.Ã¢â¬ "Do you have the empty container from the last time." enquires the bride. "Yes I doÃ¢â¬ , says the woman and she walks out to her car, then comes back in with an empty deodorant stick. "This isn't a bottom deodorant madam, itÃ¢â¬â¢s just a normal deodorant stick." The woman snatches it out of her hands and reads aloud. "To apply take off lid and push up bottom.Ã¢â¬ The groom was born in 1975, a year when the Khmer Rouge invaded Cambodia and Saigon surrendered to the North Vietnamese. So itÃ¢â¬â¢s true what they say, these things always happen in threes. He went to St. Serfs school were he was a rather quiet pupil, until of course, as anyone who knows him, he stepped onto the soccer pitch. He shunned the roll of forward for the more unorthodox "bare knuckle boxerÃ¢â¬ and "chief shin kickerÃ¢â¬ role, it was novelty for him to be on the pitch a whole ninety minutes, never mind score goals. He then went on to play for Prestonfield Boys Club and then Napier University football team. Sadly this was to be the end of his sporting career, as this was when he discovered alcohol and women. After school the groom worked in a Saturday job at Homebase. I spoke to an old work colleague who was only too happy to tell me of his time there.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
About a matter of two hundred decades ago, Greek astronomers valued the erudition that the shape of the Earth is correspondingly a sphere. And as the moon passes through the shadow of the earth, or that which is called a lunar eclipse, the Greeks have observed the circular shadow casted by the Earth. Since that time, it was already an established intellect that only spherical objects cast a circular shadow, thus, the conclusion that the Earth is likewise spherical in shape. The mere conclusion of the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s shape, nevertheless, did not achieve contentment to the Greeks. A Greek astronomer by the name Eratoshenes discovered a possible way in measuring the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s circumference. It started when he had heard some reports from one of EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢s city, Syene, which was located on the equator of the earth. The reports have informed Eratosthenes that the sun shows vertical wells down on Syene during the first day of summer. However, the astronomer did not observe any similar phenomenon anywhere by his home; therefore he arrived at the supposition that in his home, Alexandria, which lies 7 degrees north of the city of Syene, the sun never does reach zenith. Eratoshenes further presupposed that the sun is in line with the potential measurement of about 7 degrees south of his residencyÃ¢â¬â¢s zenith during summer solstice or the first day of summer. Provided such conclusion, the distance from Alexandria and Syene was believed to be 7/360 or 1/150 that of the circumference of the Earth ( a complete circle has a 360 degree measure). Additionally, way back EratoshenesÃ¢â¬â¢ time, Ã¢â¬Å"stadeÃ¢â¬ was the known standard unit of measurement, which then is equal to 1/6 of a kilometer. Consequently, there are 5,000 stades from Syene to Alexandria and from such logic, the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s circumference was calculated to be: 50 x 25,000 stades = 42,000 kilometers. Accordingly, the accepted modern value of the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s circumference is 40,000 km, hence Eratosthenes was correct. References Ã¢â¬Å"The Earth and Moon, Size of the Earth cont. Ã¢â¬ Publication retrieved on 10 Sept 2007 from http://inkido. indiana. edu/a100/earthmoon7. html
Friday, August 16, 2019
From 1600 Ã¢â¬â 1763, several European nations vied for control of the North American continent. Why did England win the struggle? Support your answer with details of each nation's successes and failures. From the early 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s to the mid 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s, several European nations vied to control North America. Spain, Great Britain, and France were all powerhouses trying to colonize the free world and create a massive empire. Out of the three, England won the struggle because of failures made by the Spanish and French in the years before the American Revolution.The Spanish were the most powerful nation before the colonizing of the West Indies began. They had the Spanish Armada who was known for never losing a single battle. They also had all the riches in the world from all of their explorations. Unfortunately, during the early 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s, the Spanish began to experience fatigue from overextension with their army. The Spanish had to take care of problems in their Dutch terri tories causing them to leave the West Indian Islands and Jamaica open for grabs.Great Britain would eventually claim it and they began to work with sugar, the rich manÃ¢â¬â¢s crop. One difference between the British and Spanish motives for colonizing was that the Spanish based part of their time converting people to Catholic. The British were not concerned with religion, but more concerned with expanding their empire and making a profit. So by now, the British had colonized most of the Atlantic coast from Maryland down to Georgia. Another nation that wanted to have control over North America was the French.The French owned land from Quebec all the way down to the end of the Mississippi River in New Orleans. They basically controlled Ã¢â¬Å"middleÃ¢â¬ America. The French were in the business of trapping and fur trade. A very profitable business, but not a very sustainable one on its own. The French never really had a chance to control the New World because they were not as power ful as the Spanish or the British. France lost their hopes of having control in North America when they lost the French and Indian War with Great Britain.Great BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s victory over the French caused them to give up most of the land that they claimed and now half of the United States was in control of the British. England won the struggle for control of North America because when they saw a chance to pick up more land from another country, they would grab it. They had the army power to go to war with France and the Spanish had too much on their plate which weakened them. The English controlled the east coast of North America and had many profitable industries such as tobacco, sugar, and indigo. England won based on their power and strategy.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
The notion of death and the process of dying are often experienced as tragedies, especially in the western culture. Thus, the medical model of care performed in our western culture includes life-saving measures and curative treatments. However, there may be a time in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life when a cure may no longer be an option. That is the time when palliative or hospice care can step in to afford the patient and the family the opportunity to maximize the remaining time spent together. This paper will compare and contrast palliative care with the hospice model. In addition, end-of-life care related to physical well-being, psychological well-being, social well-being, and spiritual well-being will be addressed based on my experience as a student nurse with Hospice of San Joaquin. Finally, the views of end-of-life care will be discussed as it relates to the hospice model. Palliative care and hospice care share a common thread. They are both models of care that take a holistic and individualized approach to anticipate and alleviate the symptoms and suffering that arise from chronic and terminal illnesses (Witt Sherman, D. , & Cheon, J. , 2012). They both encompass the patient and family as the center of care and provide comprehensive assessments and comfort measures to patients with terminal illnesses. The care continues past the death of the patient and can continue into the bereavement period for family. Hospice will continue to support the bereaved family up to one year past the death of the patient (Hospice of San Joaquin, 2010). Both models utilize an interdisciplinary approach to care with team members that include physicians, nurses, social workers, spiritual members, massage therapists, and home health aids and others. Palliative care can be utilized during any time during the course of an illness and disease process. The cost of cure can be extensive and both palliative and hospice care limit medical interventions that can significantly increase healthcare costs. Data substantiating improved quality of life for the patient and the families as well as improved coordination of care have been identified as valuable outcomes in both palliative and hospice care (Hospice of San Joaquin, 2010). Both models allow for services to be provided in the home, in extended care facilities, hospitals, and community home-based programs and outpatient clinics (Witt Sherman, D. , & Cheon, J. , 2012). The differences between the programs are centered on the time the care is available. Palliative care is available during any point of the illness from time of diagnosis through the bereavement period for families. In addition, palliative care may be offered while life-prolonging treatments are being administered (Witt Sherman, D. & Cheon, J. , 2012). Hospice care is available during the end of life and typically, but not always, takes place the last six months of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s life. If the dying process exceeds six months, hospice care can be suspended and restarted when the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s life expectancy falls below six months (Hospice of San Joaquin, 2010). Hospice care may be offered in all settings previously mentioned, as well as hospice units and residential hospices (Witt Sherman, D. , & Cheon, J. , 2012).
A key element of the role of any member of support staff in a school or other education environment, is communication, both with children and adults. Whilst it is important for children to learn cognitive skills, it is equally important that they also learn skills that will allow them to function effectively in society. A significant proportion of the latter can be attributed to effective communication, how individuals cooperate with others, and the relationships built both on a social and professional level. Support staff have a responsibility to act as role models for students, and it is therefore imperative that a clear understanding of effective communication and professional relationships is held. This study pack outlines the principles, skills and regulations that cover this topic. Principles Effective communication is the fundamental principle in building positive relationships (relationships which benefit children and young people, and their ability to participate in and benefit from the setting). In general, both children and adults are much more likely to co-operate and share information, if they feel you communicate openly and clearly. This is not limited to what you say but also appearance, body language, facial gestures and mood. In particular it must be remembered that you are acting as a role model, and the way you communicate is likely to be reciprocated in the same way. There are seven principles involved in building relationships: 1.Ã Effective communication Ã¢â¬â covers both formal and informal verbal, written communication, in addition to body language, facial gestures, physical contact and appearance, and the way these impact our interactions with others. 2. Respect Ã¢â¬â courtesy and respect should be demonstrated in any interaction with an individual (be it child or adult). Although you may differ in opinion, it is important to actively listen to others, and respect their view(s). The same consideration should be applied to individuals from different cultures, and their values/traditions upheld. For example in Germany professional interactions are much more formal and people are rarely referred to on first name terms, even if they are acquainted. 3. Consideration Ã¢â¬â be sensitive to others situation/position particularly when behaviour or reaction is out of character. There may well be an underlying cause you are not currently privy to . 4. Remembering Personal Issues Ã¢â¬â if you are aware of any concerns or upcoming life events, it may be worth enquiring about these, as it shows that you are interested, and is likely to benefit any relationship . You may be worries that an individual may not want to discuss any further, they can let you know if this is the case but it is probably still better to ask, than seem aloof or standoffish. 5. Listening Ã¢â¬â communication is a two way process. Therefore it is vital that you take time to actively listen to others, in order that they feel their opinions are considered. Active listening means that you hear another opinion but also demonstrate interest by responding appropriately (both verbally and with body language gestures). Listening is fundamental if others are to feel able to confide in you or ask for help/advice. 6. Clarity on Key Points Ã¢â¬â when giving information or instructions you must be clear, so that others can understand what you have said, or asked of them. Do not assume you have been clear, especially with children who may say they understand even if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t. Always ask them to repeat back to you what they have need to do, whilst reassuring them that you are not testing them but checking that your instructions were clear. 7. Sense of Humour Ã¢â¬â Particularly in times of stress or pressure, try to see the funny side of a situation. Not only will it benefit you ( temporarily reducing stress) but also releases tension from any situation. Although these principles can be applied to building any relationship, there will of course be differences or adaptations in the way we communicate dependant on the context of an interaction. It is inconceivable to think that the way we informally converse or behave in the company of friends would be acceptable in a workplace meeting. More formal language and behaviour would be expected in the latter, if one was not to be considered rude. The same would be true of any interaction with a parent in a professional capacity. As mentioned previously it is not just what is said or written but also gestures, body language and dress, which should be appropriate to a situation. Advice should be sought when dealing with individuals from different cultures, with particular attention to acceptable behaviour, gestures relevant to that culture, to avoid misinterpretation. What may seem perfectly acceptable to you, could be interpreted as extremely impolite to another culture. In summary you should consider who you are interacting with as well as the (likely) expectation of language and behaviour. In doing so you are less liable to avoid causing offence, misunderstanding or bad feeling; which all have a detrimental effect on any relationship that may have been fostered. Skills May of the skills involved in effective communication do not need to be learnt as we demonstrate them subconsciously. It is however valuable to understand what these skills are and evaluate our own strengths, weaknesses and areas for development. Give Opportunities to Speak Ã¢â¬â as with all beneficial communication but particularly in the case of children, it is important to allow and give opportunities for every pupil to speak and contribute. Every child is different, some maybe confident and particularly vocal whilst others may seem reticent. An inclusive environment should be created where every child has the opportunity to express themselves. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be tempted to speak whenever there is a pause in conversation, as some children need time to process their thoughts and garner confidence to share them. Actively Listen Ã¢â¬â show you are listening by giving a child your undivided attention and maintaining eye contact. By doing this you are inadvertently saying your voice matters to me, which will only serve to boost self esteem, confidence and aid positive relationship building. Positive Body Language and Facial Expressions Ã¢â¬â body language and facial expression are another way to demonstrate you are listening. Nodding, smiling, talking/listening at a childÃ¢â¬â¢s level, all indicate you are interested in what they have to say, and can also make you seem more approachable. Folded arms, neutral facial expressions and talking down to a child can make you appear intimidating. React and Comment Ã¢â¬â Respond to the information a child gives you, this may involve repeating what they have said, to clarify your understanding. Adding your own responses will also add to the conversation and help extend it. Be Interested, Respond and Question Ã¢â¬â Demonstrate that you are interested in what a child has to say. One way to achieve this is by responding and the appropriate points and asking questions, which may further the conversation. It is also important that the child is given opportunity to ask questions and respond in the same way, so that they learn that communication is a two way process and you are equally interested in what they have to say. As adults it is easy to dominate dialogue, without intentionally meaning to do so, by not giving a child time to contribute, question or give their ideas, opinions or feelings. Children should be encouraged to question information and add their own ideas, therefore the school environment should promote this. Adaptation The skills discussed are however just a starting point and as with the guiding principles, adaptations will need to be applied dependant on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s age and context. Age Younger children will tend to be less independent so will rely more heavily on reassurance and positive reinforcement in your communications with them. Additionally younger children are often much more tactile and will seek physical contact as a source of reassurance and to build confidence. Younger children are generally more open and will seek adult help in times of distress, anxiety but also to share achievements. Consequently communication is much easier, as they will share information openly with you. As children mature, they become more self conscious and aware of peer pressure, often reluctant to share information and are therefore likely to require much more coaxing and encouragement to discuss issues and verbalise their feelings. Context Within the school environment you are likely to function in various capacities within your job role, learning support mentor, pastoral role, supervisory role (playground duty), teacher/peer support and confidante. Your style of communication will need to be adapted according to the situation. In a more formal setting, such as the classroom it will be necessary to provide clear, concise communication regarding tasks whilst simultaneously foreseeing and dealing with any disruptions, to ensure pupils stay focused on task. Conversely when acting in a pastoral role, active listening will play a greater part. Your language maybe less formal to engage the child and make them feel comfortable to share their troubles and feelings. The child may seek personal information from you in this instance; have you ever felt this way, has this happened to you? Whilst it ay be tempting to answer these questions openly and honestly, to give the child confidence to do the same, you should remember that a professional relationship must be maintained at all times. Show your understanding without giving too much personal information, it is important for the child to view you in a professional capacity not as a friend. Communication Differences Each child is an individual and therefore will have t heir own communication style and differences. If a child has SEN, these will be documented and it will be much easier to make adaptations according to their provision map or statement. However this will not always be the case and you will need to recognise and respond to any communication differences, a child may have. For example some children may lack self confidence, and ample opportunity must be provided for them to contribute. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be tempted to talk for them or guess what they are trying to get across. This will only serve to compound their anxieties. You may feel it beneficial to work 1:1 building to small groups and further as a whole class to build their confidence slowly. Ask for help from your speech and language coordinator if you work with a child with a speech disorder, they will be placed to advise on strategies for working with a particular type of communication issue. As adults, our nurture instincts often lead us to step to help a child when they experience communication issues, which is not actually beneficial to the child. Allow them time to speak, support them (use of visual aids, sign language, providing an environment where they feel comfortable and confident), show sensitivity but do not try and be their voice. Communication needs The skills of communication apply equally to adults, young people and children and whilst there are many similarities and significant overlap in the way we communicate with these groups (active listening, body language, facial expressions, showing interest etc), there are also important distinctions that must be made. Children With children communication must be succinct, clear and concise, too much information can lead to confusion. They should be able to feedback to you in their own words, their understanding of your expectations from them. An inability to so demonstrates that you need to reconsider your choice of vocabulary appropriate to the child. Avoid using expressions or sayings that children may find vexing and interpret literally, particularly if English is not their first language. One such example would be referring to something as Ã¢â¬Ëthe beeÃ¢â¬â¢s kneesÃ¢â¬â¢, there is nothing in this expression which suggests something is good, so this only serves to confuse a child. Within the school environment, as a member of support staff you are functioning in a professional capacity, your choice of language should reflect this. A certain degree of formality must be maintained to ensure the carer- child relationship boundaries are clear. This especially applies to physical contact, which should not be promoted or offered. In a setting with younger children who seek this type of reassurance, this may be more difficult and you should not shun a child who tries to hold your hand or embrace you. They may interpret this as a rebuke and assume they have upset you. Conversely you should not be initiating this form of contact. Adults Communication difficulties are not exclusive to children. Adults may also experience issues, and it is important you apply the same sensitivity and adaptations, as you would with a child. Again some difficulties may be more obvious than others, hearing impairment, non-English speaking or English as an additional language (EAL), if you are meeting face to face, allowing you to adapt more easily. You should however consider the various forms of communication your school utilises and consider potential communication difficulties, adults may have that you are not aware of. Adult literacy is an issue , particularly in disadvantaged areas. Sending letters home in this instance would not be an effective method of communication. This could be something you should be sensitive and consider particularly if you feel an parent is taciturn. Simply speaking to the parent at the end of school outlining the content of the letter and politely asking for a reply may foster a relationship that allows the adult to work with you for the benefit of the child. Autism is another area that affects communication for both adults and children. Be mindful that you should adapt your communication style but what is suitable for a child maybe patronising and send out the rong impression to an adult. Equally do not assume any every person with autism will have the same, if any, communication difficulties and that you should consider the person as an individual rather than a minority group. Managing Conflict Typically most conflict arises due to a breakdown or lack of communication. Identifying and addressing conflict early is the key to resoluti on. However successful resolution requires sensitivity careful management of the situation. Open dialogue between affected individuals is the starting point of conflict resolution. Everyone should be able to discuss what happened (their interpretations of events) openly and freely ( show RESPECT). They should also be encouraged to describe their actions (take RESPONSIBILTY). Often misinterpretation of another intentions or verbal misconception are the cause of conflict. Equally others may be unaware of the impact of their own actions or communication style on others, particularly if there are cultural differences. Be mindful of external pressures or issues to which you or others may not be privy. External pressures, for example family breakdown, will have a significant effect on individuals, their way of expressing this may be uncharacteristic in terms of behaviour. In this instance it would be beneficial to talk to the child or adult individually and offer support, prior to involving others. Finally develop a plan moving to move forward (REPAIR the situation), which is satisfactory to all concerned. This approach forms the basis of restorative justice, practised in many schools and has been shown to proactively to build relationships, promote discipline and prevent harm and conflict occurring.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
The prison employees safety is in jeopardy. Prison positions always carried a moderate amount of risk. Prisons are filled with people who believe that rules and regulations serve no purpose. These people violated the rules to the extent that they were removed from society.Ã Prisoners never deny nor apologize for their behavior. Making excuses for uncivilized behavior allows the low morale to never be acknowledged. Refusing to acknowledge the low morale problem among prisoners stops solutions from being possible. Causes of the Low Morale Among Prisoners There are as many outside influences for the low morale of prisoners as their own beliefs and opinions.Ã Giving in to easily to persuasion, wanting to be accepted, wanting friends and associates are the factors that are least acknowledged. Psychiatrists analyzeÃ behavior and characteristics by social skills. However, wanting to have friends and please people leaves an opening to be influenced into unacceptable behavior. Today, no one can be certain if associates are really friends or enemies. Some of the current studies are mental illnesses, malnutrition, isolation, guards behavior and lack of rehabilitation and psychiatric programs are causing prisoners to have a lower regard for human life. Psychological games the guards use to cause the inmates to lose their individuality and focus contribute to low morale.Ã The system is set up so the prisoners frame of mind never changes for the better. Segregation in Maximum Security Prisons In maximum security prisons, Ã¢â¬Å"The prisoners spend 23 hours a day in small well lit cells, for one hour a day they have access to one small concrete recreation areaÃ¢â¬ (Bender, November 4, 2005, P 15).Ã According to the study from Psychiatric News, segregation worsens behavior. With conditions like these, the prisoners learn is if they survive another day, they are doing the right thing.Ã They lose all knowledge of social skills. The only mental health treatment they are allowed is a brief time with the psychotherapists. The counseling is conducted in front of other inmates cells. Lack of treatment for drug and alcohol addiction is another problem in the prisons. Ã¢â¬Å"So far, one prisoner who repeatedly ends up in prison cost tax payers over $200,00Ã¢â¬ ( Imse, 2007). Ã The system does very little to correct the situation. The drug addicts cannot overcome the habit on their own. According to the Rocky Mountain News, the expenses of the medication and therapy is one of the reasons many prisoners do not get the proper treatment they need. According to the Human Rights Watch article, prisoners spent at least 23 hours during their daily activities along. The majority of damage to the prisoners is psychological. There is very little or no evidence of physical abuse. Mental humiliation and torture is impossible to prove. Conclusion Maximum security prisoners have a very low morale because of the psychological abuse they go through day after day. According to the latest research, isolation has the biggest impact on prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. They are isolated, but are constantly watched. People in maximum security prisons are segregated because they have came acrossÃ secrets they were not supposed to. Bender, E, Psychiatric News (November 4, 2005), Volume 40, Number 21, P 15 Ã © 2005 American Psychiatric Association Human Rights Watch (2000) HWR.ORG Imse, A, (Feb 16, 2007) Rocky Mountain News. Revolving Door to State Prisons Human Rights Watch, (February 2000) Vol. 12, No 1 G Out of Sight: Super-Maximum Security Confinement in the United States
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Impact of Competitive and Organizational Context on Manchester Unit of Amifood - Essay Example In order to empower the low skilled employees of Amifood, it needs to generate the sense of responsibility so that they take their task seriously. It can be performed by offering employees with a few choices. The socioeconomic position and social background are the factors which can impact the choice of employees (Staw, 2006). Effective organizational context can support and strengthen the capabilities of employees by developing a supportive environment and by providing adequate resources in terms of training, higher wages and advanced equipment (Pierre & Et. Al., 2011). In the case of Amifood, it can be observed that the comparative pay of tray operatives is lower than similar jobs of other companies, which has directly created anxiety among the workers and reduced the level of performance. A reward system on the basis of performance of employees in the Manchester Unit can further promulgate effectiveness in healthy work environment. Benefits and Costs from Increase to the Real Wage s of Low Skilled Operatives The wage setting in an organization is an uncertain procedure. According to Ã¢â¬ËConventional TheoryÃ¢â¬â¢, it can be said that Ã¢â¬Å"marginal product of labor is similar to the real wageÃ¢â¬ of employees (Millea, 2002). If employees become more useful, then organizations can react with increase of the amount of real wages. On the other hand, the Ã¢â¬ËEfficiency Wage TheoryÃ¢â¬â¢ says that, higher wages provide an encouragement for employees to upsurge their efficiency. The cost of turnover of employees is directly related with the wage amount. According to the observation of Campbell (1993), employees who receive comparatively higher wages are much unenthusiastic to quit the job. It can be stated that high real wages... It is evident from the study that Human Resource Management (HRM) is a vital segment in any organization which deals with managing the relationships with and among employees and controlling their performance. The practices of HRM in organization include recruitment, training, performance appraisal and reward among others. Effective HRM at work can guarantee high quality loyal employees which are beneficial for organization. It is the duty of HRM to motivate employees so that they can put their best effort towards work. Motivation of employees is significant for any organization to improve the productivity and gain competitive advantage. Among other factors the financial aspects can be used as a motivator for low skilled employees of Amifood because their pay was comparatively lower than other organizations which in turn resulted in higher absenteeism, less enthusiasm to work for extra hours and high rate of turnover. Demotivated employees can fail to deliver quality services and it c an harm the reputation of the company. Therefore, appropriate change in HR process is significant for Amifood to make them dedicated towards work and make a strong position in the international market. Several theory depicts that employees can be motivated by money, thus many companies apply higher pay to make them perform effectively. Where employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ productivity is directly connected with the achievement of company aims, higher pay can be used as motivator.
Monday, August 12, 2019
Free Trade Agreement (FTAs) in China - Essay Example al or economic mediation has caused other nations, chiefly the ones in Asia Pacific region, to go abroad on preferential trading agreements, thereby, causing consideration from the World Trade Organization regarding the propagation of prejudiced trade agreements (Jiang, 2008). Hence, we will discuss ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s two-pronged free trade agreements, thereby, discussing their ramifications for the World Trade Organization. Moreover, the centralization will totally be on the Chinese viewpoints regarding the association between FTAs and the World Trade Organizations. Also, we will discuss about ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s impetus behind its vigorousness in FTAs and its approach to the negotiations of the same, along with the local roots of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s FTA strategies. The ramifications of FTAs in China for the World Trade Organizations are inclusive of whether China has discarded mutualism for bilateralism for the sake of its global trade cooperation, whether it anticipates the facilitation of trad e liberalization under the World Trade Organization by means of Free Trade Agreements, or whether China has been attempting to maintain its FTAs acquiescent with the rules and regulations of World Trade Organization (Jiang, 2008). One of the most striking developments in foreign relations maintained by China and the Asian financial system in current times is that China, being a developing economy, is vigorously shoving for free trade agreements or FTAs in Asia and the world (Shulong, 2006). In a matter of few years, it is hooked with proposing and incorporating in the free trade agreement talks and discussions with various countries. China has signed a fundamental agreement with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations or ASEAN, thereby,
Sunday, August 11, 2019
Analyzing Marketing Opportunities - Essay Example GVA online defines market demand as the "total volume purchased in a specific geographic area by a specific customer group in a specified time period under a specified marketing program (GVA Online GVA, 2003/2004)." In the case of Qantas market demand is indicated by the total number of travelers and individuals who patronize the services that they offer, having the resources to pay for the bill charged by the company. When assessing the total demand for the company's product and services, the company takes into account only those people who can afford to pay them, excluding those who won't be able to afford those that they offer or those who don't intend to take a trip by plane. Market demand, market potential, and sales forecast are interrelated. It is due to the fact that market demand is utilized to generate an accurate sales forecast and sales potential. As defined above, market demand is the historical demand for a good or service by customers backed by purchasing power. Sales forecasting is a very essential tool in assessing the health of a business entity. The accuracy of sales forecast can also give decision makers in the company the required information to come up with precise and useful strategies that will boost the revenue and profit of the business in the long run. Companies that implement accurate sales forecasting processes reap benefits such as enhanced cash flow, knowledge on timing and quantity of inventory to be purchased, in-depth knowledge of customers and the products that they prefer, the ability to plan production and required capacity, an insight on the trend and pattern of sales, determination of the value of business above the value of current assets, and the ability to determine the expected return on investment (Conduct a Sales Forecast, 2000). These benefits in turn, will help the company maximize its revenue and efficiency, minimized costs and further boost customer retention. In sales forecasting, the company come up with a sales volume which the company expects to generate in the future. Since the forecast is based on past sales of the company, it is necessary to know the dollar sales volume of the firm for the past several years. If not enough sales data have been recorded, it may be necessary to improvise (Conduct a Sales Forecast, 2000). In the case of Qantas, sales forecasting can be done by gathering data on how the company performed during the past years. Historical data of number of passengers should be gathered according to the time-frame needed. In its other line of businesses like food service, it can utilize the historical data on dollar sales. Sales forecasting can be employed to predict the short-term and long term sales of the company. For a short-term forecast, it is usually enough to know the sales for the past few weeks or months in comparison with the corresponding period of the year before. If sales for the past 4 weeks were 8 percent more than the corresponding 4 weeks of the preceding year, sales for the next few weeks can reasonably be expected to be 8 percent ahead of the corresponding period a year ago (Conduct a Sales Forecast, 2000). Adjustments have to be made, of course, for any known or predicted conditions